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Flashcards in Physio II Lecture IA Deck (51):
1

Stages in neural tube development

1. Neural Plate
2. Neural folds
3. Neural tube

2

Time line for the formation of nervous system occurs during what embryonic stage?

End of second week to end of eighth week

3

What are the subdivisions of cranial end of neural tube

Pentapartite brain and tripartite brain

4

Tripartite brain is made up of what?

Prosencephalon
Mesencephalon
and Rhombencephalon

5

What do the three parts of the growing pentapartite brain divide into?

Prosencephalon into->telencephalon (most anterior) and diencephalon
Mesencehpalon: does not divide
rhombosephlon divides into -> metencephalon and myelencephalon

6

Where is the cerebral aquaduct?

between the third and fourth ventricle

7

What are the parts of the telencephalon primordia?

Lumina-lateral ventricles I and II
Floor-basal ganglia (nuclei) and olfactory lobes and nerves - tracts
Roof-cerebral hemispheres

8

What are the parts of the diencephalon primorida?

Lumen....third ventricle
roof...epithalamus
walls....thalamus
floor....hypothalamus and infundibulum

9

What are the parts of the mesencephalon primordia?

Lumen....cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)
Roof=tectum: superior and inferior colliculi
Floor...tegmentum

10

What are the parts of the metencephalon primordia?

Lumen-part of the forth ventricle
Roof- cerebellum
Floor-pons

11

What are the parts of the myelencephalon primordia?

Lumen-rest of fourth ventricle
Main part - medulla oblongata
Roof- posterior choroid plexus

12

What is the myelencephalon's main part, the medulla oblongata, composed of?

Nuclei, pyramids, olives, vital reflex centers, and various nonvital centers

13

What does the myelencephalon medulla nuclei make up?

Vestibular nuclear complex
Sensory nuclei
Portions of reticular formation

14

What do myelencephalon medulla pyramids consist of?

Lateral corticospinal tracts

15

What are the myelencephalon medulla olives the site of?

Site of nuclei related to cerebellum

16

Metencephalon pons nuclei makes up what?

1. Cranial nerve nuclei V-VII
2. Pontine nuclei: Relay between cerebrum and cerebellum

17

What do the metencephalon centers make up?

Sleep center
Respiratory centers

18

The mesencephalon tectum (roof) consists of what?

Superior colliculi (visual reflexes)
Inferior colliculi (auditory and olfactory reflexes)

19

What does the cerebellum have?

Has a cortex

20

What are the functions of the cerebellum?

Coordinate skeletal muscle movement
Maintain equilibrium and posture
Synergic control of muscle activity

21

What is the diencephalon thalamus?

Major relay center for afferent and efferent information to and from cerebrum and other areas of the brain......olfactory does not pass through

22

What is the diencephalon epithalamus?

Habenular nuclei involved in emotional and visceral responses to odors and pineal body

23

What is the diencephalon hypothalamus?

Mamillary bodies involved in olfactory relexes and emotional responses to odors
Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei

24

What is the function of the diencephalon?

Controls and integrates ANS
Associated with many kinds of visceral activity
Intermediary between nervous and endocrine systems
Controls normal body temp
Maintains extracellular fluid volume
Biorhythm oscillator

25

What are the parts of the telencephalon?

Olfactory bulbs
Basal nuclei (ganglia)
And cerebral cortex

26

What is the function of the telencephalon basal nuclei (ganglia)?

Subconscious motor control and muscle tone

27

What is anecephaly?

Failure of cranial end of neural tube to close

28

What is arnold-chiari deformity?

Inferior cerebellum and medulla are elongated and protrude into vertebral canal
Medulla and pons are small and deformed
Hydrocephalus-blockage of fluid flow
Malformation of lower cranial nerves: deafness; tongue, facial muscle, lateral eye movement weakness

29

What is spina bifida occulta?

Normally hidden
Results from a failure of the inferior neuropore to close
Vertebral arches fails to develop in caudal area
Spinal cord function is usually normal

30

What is spina bifida cystica?

Characterized by a sac=-like cyst at the caudal end of spine
Spinal cords and/or meninges may be found in the cyst
Spinal cord function may be impaired
May be lower extremity dysfunction
Bladder and bowl function may be impaired

31

What is menigocele?

Form of spina bifida cystica
Only meninges found in sac
Spinal cord function may be impaired
Signs and symptoms vary depending on location and severity of malformation

32

What is meningomyelocele?

Form of spinal bifida cystica
Both meninges and spinal cord are found in sac
Always results in abnormal growth of spinal cord
Lower extremity paralysis
Bowel and bladder dysfunction
Loss of sensation to lower limbs

33

What is myeloschisis

Failure of caudal neural folds to close
Most severe of the defects

34

What is holoprosencephaly?

Failure of prosencephalon to divide into two cerebral hemispheres
Often associated with facial deformities
--single orbit with two eyes or one eye or no eye
--probosics type nose located above eye
--cleft lip and palate

35

When does superior (anterior or cranial) neuropore closes?

by day 27

36

When does inferior (posterior or caudal)neuropore closes?

By day 30

37

Caudal end forms the....

Spinal cord

38

Subdivision of cranial end of neural tube

Tripartite brain and then pentapart brain

39

Myelencephalon medulla various nonvital centers are what?

Hick up, vomiting and diarrhea

40

Mesencephalon nuclei

Cranial nerve nuclei III-IV

41

Mesencephalon tegmentum

Red nucleus
Substantia nigra (pankinsons)
Various tracts

42

Telencephalon cerebral cortex

Divided into paired lobes
Surface with gyri and sulci

43

What does the myelencephalon medula vital reflex centers make up?

Cardiac center
Vasomotor center
Centers related to respiration

44

What are the parts of the metencephalon?

Pons and cerebellum

45

What are the parts of mesencephalon?

Nuclei, tectum (roof) and tegmentum

46

What does the mesencephalon nuclei make up?

The cranial nerve nuclei III-IV

47

What does the mesencephalon tegmentum make up?

Red nucleus, substantia nigra, various tracts

48

The cerebellum is connected to other parts of the brain via what?

Large pairs of fibers tracts called penuncles

49

What is each part of the cerebellum connected to?

Inferior connected to medulla and spinal cord
Middle connected to pons
Superior connected to midbrain

50

What are the parts of diencephalon?

Thalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalamus

51

What are the characteristics of the telencephalon cerebral cortex?

Divided into paired lobes
Surface with gyri and sulci