Physio II Lecture 4 Flashcards Preview

Physiology II Test 1 jourdan > Physio II Lecture 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physio II Lecture 4 Deck (70):
1

the Primary somatosensory are is made up of?

Brodmann's Areas 1, 2, & 3

2

the Somatosensory ASSOCIATION area is made up?

Brodmann's areas 5 and 7

3

Bilateral excision in Somatosensory area I results in Astereognosis. A term that describes one's loss of ability to do what?

judge shapes or forms

4

a Bilateral cut in the Somatosensory area I will preserve these senses but they will be poorly localized

Pain and Temperature

5

Removal of somatosensory II has no apparent effect on the response of neurons in?

Somatosensory area I

6

The somatosensory area II (SSAII) receives signals from?

1. Brain stem, transmitted Up and bilaterally2. secondarily from SSAII (somatosensory area II) 3. Visual, Auditory, and other sensory areas

7

these layers of the Somatosensory cortex send information through the corpus callosum to the opposite hemisphere

layers II and III

8

the Superficial layers of the SS cortex function in?

receiving input signals from lower brain centers

9

Axons from layer VI in the SS cortex project into this part of the Brain

Thalamus

10

large neurons from this layer in the SS cortex project to distant areas such as basal nuclei, brain stem, and spinal cord

layer V

11

Receptor potentials are created in response to membrane deformation caused by touch or pressure that will open these channels

Modality gated sodium channels

12

if the receptor potential is strong enough, through Summation, it may generate an action potential at the first?

Node of Ranvier on the primary sensory neuron

13

Primary neurons are?

first order neurons. they originate from peripheral receptors and enter the spinal cord or brain via Dorsal roots of spinal/cranial nerves

14

Primary neurons synapse in the spinal cord with?

secondary neurons

15

the cell bodies of Primary neurons are located in the?

Dorsal root ganglia

16

these neurons originate in spinal cord gray matter, travel through myelinated columns in the spinal cord, decussate, and synapse in the thalamus with Tertiary neurons

Secondary neurons

17

Tertiary neurons travel through internal capsule, which is a myelinated pathway between thalamus and basal nuclei, to synapse in?

the somatosensory cortex

18

this touch refers to the ability to distinguish two separate points as close as 2mm apart.

Two-Point Discrimination

19

two Point discrimination travels in the?

Dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway

20

why is Lateral inhibition important in the Cerebral cortex?

blocks the lateral spread of excitatory signals, thereby increasing the degree of contrast in the cerebral cortex

21

Lateral inhibition occurs at these three sites

Dorsal Column nuclei
Ventrobasal nuclei of thalamus
somatosensory cortex

22

Peripheral sensory neurons originate from?

receptors in the periphery

23

the Dorsal Column-medial lemniscal pathway also carries these neurons

Primary neurons

24

Axons from the lower limbs travel in the medial portions of the two dorsal columns called the?

fasciculus Gracilis

25

axons from the Upper limbs travel in the lateral portions of the two dorsal columns called the?

fasciculus Cuneatus

26

axons in the fasciculus gracilis synapse in the lower medulla in the?

Nucleus gracilis

27

axons in the fasciculus cuneatus synapse in the lower medulla in the?

Nucleus cuneatus

28

Secondary neurons travel through the brain stem as paired tracts referred to as the?

medial lemniscus

29

Secondary neurons synapse in this part of the brain with Tertiary neurons

basolateral nucleus of the Thalamus

30

Decussation occurs with these neurons

Secondary

31

primary sensory neurons travel (up/down) through dorsal columns of spinal cord into (upper/lower) Medulla and synapsing with _____ in the nucleus gracilis and the nucleus cuneatus of the medulla

uplowerSecondary neurons

32

Secondary neurons ascend up the brainstem to the?

Thalamus

33

tertiary neurons synapse with secondary neurons in the Thalamus and travel to?

Somatosensory cortex

34

Nociceptors are what type of receptor

pain receptor

35

Fast pain is carried by?

A-Delta pain fibers

36

A-delta pain fibers typically terminate in____ of the dorsal horns of the spinal cord

Lamina I marginalis

37

Slow pain is carried by?

C type fibers

38

This type of pain is described as aching, slow burning, throbbing, nauseous, and chronic

Slow pain

39

Slow pain terminates in____of the dorsal horns of the spinal cord

Layers II and III (Substantia gelatinosa)

40

Nerve fiber type C is classified as sensory nerve? and associated with this motor function

IV-sympathetic

41

which path does Pain travel?

Anterolateral pathway

42

anterolateral pain pathway is made up of?

Secondary fibers that decussate

43

fast pain fibers make up these tracts and synapse/terminate in the Ventrobasal nuclei of the Thalamus

Neospinothalamic

44

slow pain fibers make up this pathway

Paleospinothalamic

45

A-delta fibers of the fast pain path use this amino acid as their Neurotransmitter

Glutamate

46

where do most paleospinothalamic secondary fibers terminate?

throughout the brain stem, but some pass all the way to the thalamus.

47

C type slow fibers release substance P faster than Glutamate. T or F?

false, substance P is released more slowly while Glutamate acts instantaneously

48

What occurs as the result of a Hemisection of the spinal cord?

Brown-Sequard Syndrome

49

All ____ functions are blocked on the side of the transection in all segments (above or Below) the level of the transection

Motor, below

50

In Brown-Sequard Syndrome, which sensations are lost?

pain, heat, and cold in the Spinothalamic pathway are lost on the opposite side of the body in Dermatomes 2-6 segments below the transection level.

51

Can you lose two-point discrimination in Brown-Sequard Syndrome?

yes, on the side of the transection in all dermatomes below the transection

52

Periaquaductal Gray and Periventricular regions of Brainstem and third ventricleRaphe magnus nucleus and reticular nuclei in MedullaPAIN inhibitory complex in dorsal horns of spinal cord.are three major components of this System

The Analgesia System

53

What type of neuron is from the Nucleus raphe magnus?

Serotonergic neuron

54

What are the three types of receptors that Discriminate thermal gradations

cold, warmth, and Pain

55

Warmth nerve endings are mainly transmitted by?

C type Fibers

56

Cold receptors are more numerous than warm nerve receptors and transmitted by?

small, type A-delta myelinated endings.

57

Thermal signals are transmitted in pathways parallel to?

pain signals

58

cold and warmth receptors are thought to be stimulated by changes in?

metabolic rates

59

Heat pain receptors kick in around 45 degrees celsius and send how many impulses per second?

10

60

cold receptors stop sending signals at what temp?

right before heat pain receptors kick in. ~45 celsius

61

this pain type occurs when visceral pain fibers are stimulated and stimulate some of the pain fibers that conduct pain signals from the skin.

Referred pain

62

All visceral pain from the Thoracic and abdominal cavities is transmitted by?

C type pain fibers

63

Severe Referred pain results when there is diffuse stimulation of pain nerve endings throughout the viscera caused by such things as?

Ischemia- a restriction of blood supply to tissues. usually from thrombosis and can lead to Myocardial Infarction (heart attack) or Cerebrovascular attack (Stroke)

64

Ascending tracts are designated on which side?

the RIGHT

65

descending tracts are designated on which side?

the LEFT

66

Spinothalamic is a descending or ascending tract?

ascending. going from the SPINE to the Thalamus. see the word roots? should help you figure it out.

67

the result of pain referred to the surface of the head from deep head structures are called?

Headaches

68

The Brain is Insensitive to pain. True or False

true. so don't poke it! the reason why Brain surgery is performed while the patient is under a light Anesthesia for the skin and skull

69

What are the three areas of Headache?

Cerebral VaultNasal sinus and eyeBrain stem and Cerebellar vault

70

esophogeal pain or Gastric reflex can be referred pain for what other major event?

a Heart problem- possibly heart attack