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Flashcards in Physio II Lecture 2 Deck (50):

The cerebral cortex contains how many neurons?

About 100 billion


What types of neurons are associated with the cerebral cortex?

Granular (stellate)FusiformPyramidal


What are Granular (stellate) neurons?

They have short axons, interneurons and are both excitatory (glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA)


What are fusiform neurons?

Smaller output neurons


What are pyramidal neurons?

Large output neurons


What cerebral cortex layer is the termination of most incoming specific sensory signals?



What cerebral cortex layers are origin of most output signals?

V and VI


Fibers go to what structure from cerebral cortex layer VI?



What cerebral cortex layers have intracortical association functions?

I, II, and III


The functions of the corresponding cortical areas become almost entirely lost when what are cut?

When thalamic connections are cut


What is the thalamocortical system?

The cortex operates in close association with the thalamus and can almost be considered both anatomically and functionally a unit with the thalamus: for this reason, the thalamus and the cortex together are sometimes called the thalamocortical system


What are the Primary Cortical areas?

Primary Motor AreasPrimary Sensory AreasSecondary Motor AreasSecondary Sensory Areas


What is the function of primary cortical areas?

Direct connections with specific muscles


What is the function of primary cortical sensory areas?

Detect specific sensations


What is the function of secondary cortical motor areas

Provide patterns of motor activity


What is the function of secondary cortical sensory areas?

Analyze meanings of specific sensory signals


What are association areas?

Areas that receive and analyze signals simultaneously from multiple motor and sensory cortices


What are the important association areas?

Parieto-occipitotemporal association areaPrefrontal association areaLimbic association area


What are the sub areas of parieto-occipitotemporal association area?

Area for analysis of spatial coordinatesWenicke's areaAngular gyrus areaArea for naming objects


What is the function of the angular gyrus area?

It is needed for initial processing of visual language (reading). Feeds information conveyed by words read from a book into Wernicke's area


What is the function of the prefrontal association area?

1. Receives preanalyzed sensory information (esp concerning spatial coordinates) necessary for planning effective movements2. Output passes through caudate portion of basal ganglia3. Carries out "thought" processes in the mind


What is the function of the Broca's area?

Provides circuitry for word formationWorks closely with Wernicke's areaAlmost always dominant on left side of the brain


What is the limbic association area concerned with?

Behavior, emotions, and motivation


What is the function of Wernicke's area?

Language comprehension


What is next to the visual cortex?

Occipital portion of facial recognition area


What is closely associated with the limbic system?

Temporal portion


Extensive damage to this area results in prosopagnosia. What area is it?

Facial recognition area


What is prosopagnosia?

Inability to recognize faces


What areas meet one another in the posterior part of the superior temporal lobe?

Somatic, visual, and auditory association areasThe area of confleunce


The area of confleunce is especially developed on what side of the brain?

The dominant side of the brain which is the left side in almost all right-handed people


What is the area of confuence referred to as?

Wernicke's area


What plays the greatest single role of any part of the cerebral cortex for intelligence?

The Wernicke's area


Activation of what area may be able to call forth complicate memory patterns involving more than one sensory modality?

Wernicke's area


What are more developed in the left hemisphere in 95% of the population?

Wenicke's area and angular gyrus


What is almost always dominant in the left hemisphere?

Broca's area


Where are motor areas for controlling hands most dominant in the brain in 90% of people?

The left hemisphere


What are prefrontal lobotomy characteristics?

Loss of ability to solve complex problemsInability to string together sequential tasks to reach complex goalsInability to do several parallel tasks at the same timeDecrease in level of aggressiveness (ambition)Inappropriate social responses Inability to carry through long trains of thoughtLoss of purpose while performing usual motor pattern functions


What does the brain's working memory allow us to do?

PrognosticationPlanning for futureDelay in response to incoming sensory signalsAbility to consider consequences of motor actionsAbility to solve complicated mathematical, legal, or philosophical problemsControl of activities in accord with moral law


What will Wernicke’s aphasia cause?

Severe damage in Wernicke's area can result in a person that might hear perfectly well (or read words) and even recognize different words but still be unable to arrange these words into a coherent thought


Broca’s aphasia.

Loss of the ability to produce language (spoken or written)


What is the major commissure between the two hemispheres?

The corpus callosum


What does cutting the corpus callosum result in?

1. blocking of transfer of information from Wernicke's area to nondominant motor cortex2. Prevention of the transfer of somatic and visual information from right hemisphere into Wernicke's area3. Results in two entirely separate conscious portions of the brain


What is declarative memory?

Refers to memory of various details of an integrated thought


What might declarative memory include?

-memory of surroundings-memory of time relationships -memory of causes of experience-memory of meaning of experience-memory of deductions as a result of experience


What memory is associated with motor activities?

Reflexive (skill) memory


What is exemplified by memory of a telephone number and lasts only as long as a person thinks of number or facts (seconds)?

Short-term memory


What memory lasts many minutes or weeks and may become long-term memory (more permanent) if memory traces are activated enough?

Intermediate long-term memory


Where was the mechanism for facilitation studied in?



What is the mechanism for facilitation? (7 steps)

-Stimulation of facilitator presynaptic terminal at the same time that sensory terminal is stimulated causes serotonin release at facilitator synapse-Serotonin receptors in sensory terminal membrane activate adenyl cyclase -> cAMP-cAMP activates part of a potassium channel-K+ channel is blocked for minutes to weeks-Lack of K+ conductance causes greatly prolonged action potential in synapse terminal-Prolonged action potential causes prolonged activation of calcium channels-Prolonged activation of calcium channels prolongs transmitter release


What are the structural changes in long-term memory?

Increase in vesicle release sites for secretion of transmitter substanceIncrease in number of transmitter vesicles releasedIncrease in number of presynaptic terminalsChanges in structures of the dendritic spines