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Flashcards in Physio II Lecture 2 Deck (50):
1

The cerebral cortex contains how many neurons?

About 100 billion

2

What types of neurons are associated with the cerebral cortex?

Granular (stellate)FusiformPyramidal

3

What are Granular (stellate) neurons?

They have short axons, interneurons and are both excitatory (glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA)

4

What are fusiform neurons?

Smaller output neurons

5

What are pyramidal neurons?

Large output neurons

6

What cerebral cortex layer is the termination of most incoming specific sensory signals?

IV

7

What cerebral cortex layers are origin of most output signals?

V and VI

8

Fibers go to what structure from cerebral cortex layer VI?

thalamus

9

What cerebral cortex layers have intracortical association functions?

I, II, and III

10

The functions of the corresponding cortical areas become almost entirely lost when what are cut?

When thalamic connections are cut

11

What is the thalamocortical system?

The cortex operates in close association with the thalamus and can almost be considered both anatomically and functionally a unit with the thalamus: for this reason, the thalamus and the cortex together are sometimes called the thalamocortical system

12

What are the Primary Cortical areas?

Primary Motor AreasPrimary Sensory AreasSecondary Motor AreasSecondary Sensory Areas

13

What is the function of primary cortical areas?

Direct connections with specific muscles

14

What is the function of primary cortical sensory areas?

Detect specific sensations

15

What is the function of secondary cortical motor areas

Provide patterns of motor activity

16

What is the function of secondary cortical sensory areas?

Analyze meanings of specific sensory signals

17

What are association areas?

Areas that receive and analyze signals simultaneously from multiple motor and sensory cortices

18

What are the important association areas?

Parieto-occipitotemporal association areaPrefrontal association areaLimbic association area

19

What are the sub areas of parieto-occipitotemporal association area?

Area for analysis of spatial coordinatesWenicke's areaAngular gyrus areaArea for naming objects

20

What is the function of the angular gyrus area?

It is needed for initial processing of visual language (reading). Feeds information conveyed by words read from a book into Wernicke's area

21

What is the function of the prefrontal association area?

1. Receives preanalyzed sensory information (esp concerning spatial coordinates) necessary for planning effective movements2. Output passes through caudate portion of basal ganglia3. Carries out "thought" processes in the mind

22

What is the function of the Broca's area?

Provides circuitry for word formationWorks closely with Wernicke's areaAlmost always dominant on left side of the brain

23

What is the limbic association area concerned with?

Behavior, emotions, and motivation

24

What is the function of Wernicke's area?

Language comprehension

25

What is next to the visual cortex?

Occipital portion of facial recognition area

26

What is closely associated with the limbic system?

Temporal portion

27

Extensive damage to this area results in prosopagnosia. What area is it?

Facial recognition area

28

What is prosopagnosia?

Inability to recognize faces

29

What areas meet one another in the posterior part of the superior temporal lobe?

Somatic, visual, and auditory association areasThe area of confleunce

30

The area of confleunce is especially developed on what side of the brain?

The dominant side of the brain which is the left side in almost all right-handed people

31

What is the area of confuence referred to as?

Wernicke's area

32

What plays the greatest single role of any part of the cerebral cortex for intelligence?

The Wernicke's area

33

Activation of what area may be able to call forth complicate memory patterns involving more than one sensory modality?

Wernicke's area

34

What are more developed in the left hemisphere in 95% of the population?

Wenicke's area and angular gyrus

35

What is almost always dominant in the left hemisphere?

Broca's area

36

Where are motor areas for controlling hands most dominant in the brain in 90% of people?

The left hemisphere

37

What are prefrontal lobotomy characteristics?

Loss of ability to solve complex problemsInability to string together sequential tasks to reach complex goalsInability to do several parallel tasks at the same timeDecrease in level of aggressiveness (ambition)Inappropriate social responses Inability to carry through long trains of thoughtLoss of purpose while performing usual motor pattern functions

38

What does the brain's working memory allow us to do?

PrognosticationPlanning for futureDelay in response to incoming sensory signalsAbility to consider consequences of motor actionsAbility to solve complicated mathematical, legal, or philosophical problemsControl of activities in accord with moral law

39

What will Wernicke’s aphasia cause?

Severe damage in Wernicke's area can result in a person that might hear perfectly well (or read words) and even recognize different words but still be unable to arrange these words into a coherent thought

40

Broca’s aphasia.

Loss of the ability to produce language (spoken or written)

41

What is the major commissure between the two hemispheres?

The corpus callosum

42

What does cutting the corpus callosum result in?

1. blocking of transfer of information from Wernicke's area to nondominant motor cortex2. Prevention of the transfer of somatic and visual information from right hemisphere into Wernicke's area3. Results in two entirely separate conscious portions of the brain

43

What is declarative memory?

Refers to memory of various details of an integrated thought

44

What might declarative memory include?

-memory of surroundings-memory of time relationships -memory of causes of experience-memory of meaning of experience-memory of deductions as a result of experience

45

What memory is associated with motor activities?

Reflexive (skill) memory

46

What is exemplified by memory of a telephone number and lasts only as long as a person thinks of number or facts (seconds)?

Short-term memory

47

What memory lasts many minutes or weeks and may become long-term memory (more permanent) if memory traces are activated enough?

Intermediate long-term memory

48

Where was the mechanism for facilitation studied in?

Aplysia

49

What is the mechanism for facilitation? (7 steps)

-Stimulation of facilitator presynaptic terminal at the same time that sensory terminal is stimulated causes serotonin release at facilitator synapse-Serotonin receptors in sensory terminal membrane activate adenyl cyclase -> cAMP-cAMP activates part of a potassium channel-K+ channel is blocked for minutes to weeks-Lack of K+ conductance causes greatly prolonged action potential in synapse terminal-Prolonged action potential causes prolonged activation of calcium channels-Prolonged activation of calcium channels prolongs transmitter release

50

What are the structural changes in long-term memory?

Increase in vesicle release sites for secretion of transmitter substanceIncrease in number of transmitter vesicles releasedIncrease in number of presynaptic terminalsChanges in structures of the dendritic spines