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Flashcards in Physiology of Nervous System Deck (90)
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31

______ pathways carry SENORY impulses _____ the CNS.
_______ pathways carry MOTOR impulses _____ the CNS.

afferent; towards
efferent; away from

32

What do motor impulses target?

effector organs - skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscle; glands

33

What are the divisions of PNS?

somatic: motor/sensory of voluntary motor control of skeletal muscle

autonomic: motor/sensory of involuntary muscles (sympathetic & parasympathetic)

34

Wallerian degeneration

Degeneration of peripheral nerve fiber (axon and myelin) that has been severed from its cell body (nutrition center)

Occurs at DISTAL portion of severed axon

35

Wallerian regeneration

PROXIMAL end of injury site sprouts new terminal 1-2 wks after injury, hopefully connecting with Schwann cell pathway and grow approx 1 mm/day

36

Where is Wallerian regeneration restricted to in nervous system? Why?

Regeneration limited to PNS

Very limited in CNS d/t scar formation after injury and different nature of myelin production by oligodendrocytes

37

intension vs resting tremor

intension occurs with movement or following commands
resting occurs at rest when not thinking about it

38

chorea

quick, irregular, involuntary, but relatively coordinated movement face, limbs, trunk

39

athetosis

distal muscle postural fixation disorder; slower than chorea, writhing, sinuous, abnormal hand posture, slowly fluctuating grimaces

40

ballism

proximal muscle postural fixation; wild flinging movement of limbs - usually unilateral

41

agnosia

- inability to recognize and interpret objects, people, sounds, or smells despite intact primary sense organs
- ex: inability to identify a sound despite intact hearing; inability to identify a coin placed in hand; inability to recognize familiar faces
- damage to occipital & parietal lobe

42

akinesia

paucity of movement

43

allodynia

condition in which an ordinarily painless stimulus is experienced as being painful (ex. the pant leg touching the thigh is described as uncomfortable)

44

anosognosia

Lack of self-awareness; unaware they have a problem or disability

Ex: schizophrenic who doesn't take meds because “there is nothing wrong with me” or hemiplegic who finds excuses (other than paralysis) for not using paralyzed arm

45

apnea test

part of “brain death exam” where patient taken off the ventilator for a certain amount of time

- Verifies lack of responsiveness to increased carbon dioxide (paCO2 > 60 mm Hg) in the presence of respiratory acidosis (pH < 7.3)

46

aphasia

inability to formulate or understand language

47

expressive vs receptive aphasia

expressive: damage to Broca's; have understanding but can't produce speech

receptive: damage to Wernicke's; speak without understanding; "word salad"

48

apraxia

impaired planning/sequencing of movement that is not due to weakness, incoordination, or sensory loss. Although the movements cannot be performed for a specific situation, they may be performed under other circumstances (e.g., inability to lift feet off the floor when attempting to walk but preserved ability to perform bicycling movements of the legs while lying in bed)

49

asterixis

sudden palmar flapping movement of the hands at the wrists; indicative of hepatic encephalopathy

50

ataxia

Lack of coordination of movement usually due to disease of cerebellum or damage to sensory pathways

51

bradykinesia

slowed movement typically due to dysfunction of the basal ganglia and related structures

52

Charcot joint

progressive destruction and deformity of bone and soft tissue at weight bearing joints due to severe sensory or autonomic neuropathy.

53

Chiari malformation

CNS disorder characterized by cerebellar elongation and protrusion through the foramen magnum into cervical spinal cord. Places these individuals at risk with extension of the head on the neck

54

"clasp knife"

spring-like resistance to passive extension at elbow or flexion at knee that increases up to a certain length and force before suddenly relaxing as the Golgi tendon organ is activated; sign of spasticity

55

"cogwheeling"

ratchet movement due to superimposition of tremor on rigidity

56

dysarthria

inability to pronounce or articulate words d/t disorder of vocal apparatus (lips, tongue, larynx)

57

dysesthesia

pain or discomfort in response to stimuli (e.g. touch) that would not be expected

58

fasciculation

spontaneous firing of axon resulting in visible twitch of all muscle fibers that it controls; indicates denervation

59

hemiparesis

weakness on one side of body

60

hemiplegia

paralysis on one side of body