Physiology of Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Neuro Module > Physiology of Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology of Nervous System Deck (90)
Loading flashcards...
61

Horner's Syndrome

ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis - ipsilateral to damaged sympathetic nerve fibers

62

Kernig's sign

pain in posterior thigh in response to passive flexion of thigh and extension of knee; indicative of meningeal irritation

63

Long-tract signs

signs referable to impaired functioning of corticospinal tract, spinothalamic tract, and dorsal columns/medial lemniscus

64

Lower motor neuron lesion

neurons located in brainstem or anterior horn

lesions result in flaccid weakness, reflex loss, atrophy, +/- fasciculations

65

meiosis

pupillary constriction

66

neuropathy

disease of axons; manifested by varying combinations of lower motor neuron weakness or peripheral sensory loss that is typically distal > proximal; often with DTR reflex impairment or loss

67

paresthesia

skin sensation such as burning, prickling, itching, or tingling with no apparent physical cause

68

rigidity

increased resistance throughout range of motion when passively moving a body part due to co-contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles ("lead pipe")

69

Romberg test

inability to maintain upright posture when feet together and eyes closed; assuming intact vestibular system, indicates impaired proprioception or cerebellar disease

70

simple tic

tic involving a limited number of muscles; simple vocal tics are meaningless noises such as grunting or throat clearing; simple motor tics are focal movements such as eye blinking or facial grimacing

71

spasticity

abnormal increase in muscle tone and reflexes; indicates upper motor neuron lesion

72

spondylosis

degenerative disease of vertebral column that results in spinal cord compression. May include osteoarthritis, osteophytes, and disc disease

73

spondylolisthesis

condition where vertebral body, typically in lumbar or sacral, slips forward and has a “step off"
May cause spinal cord compression

74

transient ischemic attack

abrupt focal loss of neurologic function caused by reduction in blood flow that persists less than 24 hours and clears without residual disability

75

2-point discrimination

an increase in distance in which a patient distinguishes two differing points of stimulation.

An increased distance suggests neuropathy (ex. carpal tunnel)

76

vertigo

subjective sense of imbalance usually noted as "room spinning"

77

How are nerve fiber sizes and myelination related to function?

Large: myelinated motor fibers
Medium: myelinated sensory (touch, vibrations, proprioception)
Small: thinly myelinated to unmyelinated sensory (pain and temp)
Very small: unmyelinated autonomic fibers (BP, HR, sweating, gut)

78

Signs of UMN lesion

weakness
spasticity
increased DTRs
+ Babinski

79

Signs of LMN lesion

weakness
fasciculations
decreased/loss of DTRs
atrophy

80

Signs of basal ganglia pathology

akinesia
resting tremor
rigidity
athetosis
chorea

81

Signs of cerebellar pathology

errors of rate, range, force, & direction
intension tremor
ataxia

82

central cord syndrome

- incomplete injury to cervical cord resulting in more extensive motor weakness in UE than LE. - occurs from hyperextension injury with pre-existent osteophytic

83

Brown-Sequard syndrome

injury to one half of the spinal cord; deficits all on ipsilateral side except pain/temp contralateral

84

Dermatome of posterior leg and lateral foot

S1

85

Dermatome of medial foot

L4

86

Dermatome of bottom and top of foot

L5

87

Dermatome of sphincter

S3-S5

88

Rash that follows dermatome

shingles

89

Examples of primitive rooting reflexes

primitive reflexes exist in infants but should go away in adults

grasp reflex
cheek reflex
Babinski

90

decorticate

lesion of the cortical spinal tract superior to brainstem