Physiology Quiz 5 (1/2) (Autonomic Nervous System) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology Quiz 5 (1/2) (Autonomic Nervous System) Deck (52):
0

The autonomic nervous system is a subsection of what system?

CNS

1

What is the Autonomic nervous system?

Efferent outflow controlled by higher centers in the CNS as well as by spinal reflexes

2

Every one of the efferent pathways of the ANS is comprised of what two neurons?

Preganglionic
Postganglionic

3

Thoracolumbar outflow

Sympathetic division of of efferent outflow from spinal cord

4

Sympathetic preganglionic fibers are (long/short)

Short

5

Sympathetic postganglionic fibers are (long/short)

Long

6

Craniosacral outflow

Parasympathetic division of efferent pathways from spinal cord

7

Where do preganglionic fibers originate in parasympathetic nervous system?

Brain

8

The preganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system are (short/long)

Long

9

The postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system are (short/long)

Short

10

In the sympathetic system, how many postganglionic fibers are innervated by a single preganglionic fiber?

11-15

11

In the parasympathetic system, how many postganglionics are innervated by a single preganglionic?

1-3

12

Divergence

The way a single sympathetic preganglionic fiber innervates 11-15 postganglionic fibers

13

Point to point control

The way a single parasympathetic preganglionic fiber innervates 1-3 postganglionics; lack of divergence

14

What is the neurotransmitter at the preganglionic to post ganglionic synapse in both divisions of the ANS

Acetylcholine

15

What is the receptor type at the preganglionic to postganglionic post synaptic membrane in both divisions of the ANS

Nicotinic cholinergic

16

Neurotransmitter at the postganglionic to end organ synapse in the parasympathetic nervous system

Acetylcholine

17

Receptor on the postganglionic post synaptic membrane to end organ in parasympathetic

Muscarinic cholinergic

18

Neurotransmitter at the postganglionic to end organ synapse in the sympathetic nervous system

Norepinephrine

19

Catecholamines

Class of compounds produced from tyrosine
Eg:
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
dopamine

20

Adrenergic receptors

Type of post synaptic receptors for sympathetic system

21

General classes of adrenergic receptors

Beta (beta 1and beta 2)
Alpha (alpha 1 and alpha 2)

22

Where are beta 1 receptors found

Surface of cardiac cells and JGA in kidney

23

Beta 1 receptors are (excitatory/inhibitory)

Excitatory

24

What happens when beta 1 receptors are stimulated?

Increase heart rate
Increase inotropic state
...therefore increases demand for oxygen

25

Inotropic state

Contractile force of muscle

26

Are beta 1 receptors innervated?

Yes

27

Where are beta 2 receptors found?

Everywhere beta 1 receptors are not found

28

Beta 2 receptors are (excitatory/inhibitory)

Usually inhibitory

29

Are beta 2 receptors innervated?

They may or may not be innervated

30

Myocardial infarction

Inability of system to supply enough oxygen to cardiac tissue

31

Effects of cocaine

Increases heart rate
Increases inotropic state
Increases catecholamines
Therefore: increases oxygen demand, can cause myocardial infarction

32

Where are alpha 1 receptors found?

Everywhere

33

Alpha 1 receptors are (excitatory/inhibitory)

Usually excitatory

34

Where are alpha 2 receptors found?

Only on the presynaptic membrane of the sympathetic postganglionic fibers

35

Alpha 2 receptors are (excitatory/inhibitory)

Inhibitory

36

At all synapses in the parasympathetic system, what is activity terminated by?

Activity of cholinesterases and acetylcholinesterases

37

JGA

Stands for juxtaglomerular apparatus
Found in kidney
Chain of reactions with this results in increased blood pressure

38

What do alpha 2 receptors do?

Inhibits release of norepinephrine (does not completely shut down) at presynaptic membrane to prevent overstimulation of synapse

39

COMT

Enzyme that breaks down catecholamines

40

Where is COMT found?

Postsynaptic sympathetic membrane and in extracellular fluid

41

Two things that can happen to norepinephrine as it diffuses across the sympathetic synapse

COMT
or
Attach to receptor on postsynaptic membrane

42

Three things that can happen to norepinephrine after it releases from receptor

Attach to another receptor
Encounter COMT
undergo active transport into nerve terminal

43

What can happen to norepinephrine that is actively transported back into the cell?

1. Can be repackaged and used again
2. Encounter MAO

44

MAO

Monoamine oxidase
Chemically alters catecholamines so they are no longer active (breaks down)

45

What does cocaine do at the synapse

Inhibits active reuptake of norepinephrine at synaptic nerve terminals; increases stimulation at synapse

46

Clinical use of cocaine

In ophthalmology to dilate pupils

47

Norepinephrine effect on CNS

Elevates mood

48

MAO inhibitors

Drug class of depression meds
Increases norepinephrine in brain

49

How pain activates sympathetic response

Pain fibers converge with sympathetic fibers in spinal cord

50

Spastic bladder

The stretch receptors in bladder wall advise higher centers of need to urinate. When there is damage to spinal cord, you lose this ability and you lose the ability to relax urinary sphincter. "Holding it" can cause increased heart rate, blood pressure, nausea, sweating, headache due to this pathway stimulating sympathetic nervous system. This is an emergency situation

51

Intermediolateral column

Little bulge off of dorsal horn where nerve cell bodies for sympathetic preganglionic are found (T1-L3)
Where pain fibers stimulate sympathetic system