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Flashcards in Plants Deck (44)
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Explain how the action of guard cells allows the plant to balance CO2 uptake with control over water loss

-Guard cells are contain vacuoles which contain water and potassium ions.
-K+ ions move out of the vacuoles and out of the guard cells. Water follows K+ ions, moving out of the vacuoles. Guard cells shrink in size, become flaccid, and so the stoma closes.
-K+ ions move into the vacuoles. Water follows ions into vacuoles. This causes the guard cells to swell and the stoma to open.


Define transpiration. How do plants replace water lost from transpiration?

-Transpiration is the loss of water from the leaves and stems of plants.
-More water is absorbed by the roots in order to replace water lost from transpiration.


What allows transport of water?

The cohesive property of water and the structure of the xylem vessels allow transport of water under tension.


How do lignified cell walls keep the xylem vessel from collapsing?

Lignin strengthens the walls so that they can withstand very low pressures without collapse.


How does water's polar nature keep the xylem vessel from collapsing?

Cohesion of water due to its polarity and the adhesion of water to the cell walls allows H2O to be pulled up from the xylem in a continuous stream.


How are mineral ions absorbed in the roots?

Mineral ions are absorbed by active transport. This is because, the ions are required to go against the concentration gradient in order to be absorbed and so passive transport isn't possible.


Outline the movement of water from root hairs to the leaves.

-Water is absorbed by osmosis into the root hairs
-Water travels to the xylem through cell walls and the cytoplasm
-Water climbs the stem trough the pull of transpiration and the adhesive and cohesive properties of water
-Water leaves through stomata by transpiration and is replaced by water from the xylem


What are the effects of temperature, light, wind, and humidity on the rate of transpiration?

-Increased temperature speeds up transpiration as it warms the leaf and thus causes more water to escape.
-Increased light speeds up transpiration as it stimulates opening of the stomata.
-Increased wind increases the rate of transpiration as it removes moist layer of air protecting the lead
-Increased humidity reduces the rate of transpiration as it encourages the closing of the stomata


Define xerophyte

Plant adapted to growing and deserts and other dry habitats


Describe three physical adaptations of xerophytes to minimize water loss

-rapid uptake of H2O
-Reducing water lost from transpiration
-storing H2O in leaves


Describe two life-cycle adaptations of xerophytes

-short life-cycles
-remain dormant as embryos


Describe how CAM plant metabolism is an adaptation to preventing water loss in xerophytes.

Open stomata at night. CO2 released at night.


Where is phloem tissue found?

Throughout plants, including stems, roots, and leaves


Describe the structure of sieve tubes

They make up phloem.
-composed of columns of specialized cells called sieve tube cells
-sieve tube cells separated by perforated walls called sieve plates
-closely associated with companion cells


What are companion cells?

-Perform many of the genetic and metabolic functions of the sieve tube cell. Done because the sieve tube needs to be as empty as possible to transport materials.
-Facilitate transport of solute from source to sieve tube and vice versa.


How does the structure of the sieve tubes relate the the function of the phloem?

-Function of phloem is to load, transport and unload carbohydrates long distances (source to sink).
-Living sieve cells depend on the organic membrane maintaining the sucrose and organic molecule concentration that has been established by active transport
-Union with companion cells.


Define translocation.

The transportation of organic solutes in the plant. Can occur in more than one direction.


What is the most prevalent solute in phloem sap? Why?

Sucrose is the most prevalent solute in phloem sap because it does not directly metabolize in respiration and so will not be metabolized in transport.


Outline co-transport.

-H+ actively transported out of companion cell from surrounding tissues using ATP.
-Buildup of H+ flows down its concentration gradient through a co-transport protein whereby energy released is used to bring sucrose against the concentration gradient and into the companion cell-sieve tube complex.


Describe the symplast route.

Mesophyll cell-> phloem parenchyma cell-> companion cell by cytoplasm-> sieve tube member


Described the applause route

Mesophyll cell-> phloem parenchyma cell-> companion cell by cell wall-> sieve tube member


Define and explain the purpose of dermal tissue, ground tissue, vascular tissue.

Dermal tissue: epidermis of root, shoot, and lead; provides protection, conserves H2O.
Ground tissue: Area just beneath epidermis; adds strength and protection to internal conductive tissues.
Vascular bundle: Conductive tissues made of xylem and phloem; transport materials.


What is meant by indeterminate growth? Where does it occur? How is this different from animals?

-Growth that continues indefinitely.
-It occurs in undifferentiated cells in the meristems of plants.
-Unlike animal cells, many plant cells are totipotent; that is, capable of giving rise to a complete embryo.


Define meristem.

Regions of undifferentiated cells undergoing active cell division. Apical meristems are primary meristems found at the tips of stems and roots.


Distinguish between apical and lateral meristems.

-Apical meristems are located in root and shoot tips. They produce new cells for plant growth.
-Lateral meristems surround the established stem. They add girth by producing secondary tissues from a ring of vascular cambium in stems and roots.


What is an axillary bud? What is IAA? What happens to IAA concentration the further away from the apical meristem? What is the primary role of IAA as it relates to axillary buds? What are IAA's other roles?

-An axillary bud is a shoot that forms at the junction of the stem and the base of a leaf.
-IAA is a plant hormone, an auxin, synthesized in the apical meristem.
-Concentration of auxin decreases as you move further away from the apical meristem.
-As axillary buds grow, meristem regions are left behind at the nodes. Growth at these nodes is inhibited by IAA.
-IAA also promotes elongation of cells in stems and inhibits growth in high concentrations.


What are cytokinins? Where are they produced?

-Hormones produced in the root which promote axillary bud growth.
-The relative ratio of cytokinins and auxins determines if the axillary bud will develop.


Explain phototropism, radicle geotropism, plumule geotropism, and hydrotropism.

-Phototropism is response to light where roots and stems grow towards light source.
-Radicle geotropism is in response to gravity where roots move in the same direction as gravity.
-Plumule geotropism is in response to gravity where the stem moves opposite the direction of gravity.
-Hydrotropism is in response to water where roots and stems move towards higher humidity.


Explain the role of auxins in phototropism.

If phototropism detect a greater intensity on one side of the stem, then the auxins move laterally towards the shadier side. This inhibits growth in the shaded area and encourages development on the side in the direction of the source of light.


Define micropropagation.

-Practice of rapidly multiplying stock plant material to produce large numbers of progeny plants.
-Meristem removed from one plant. Placed in growth media. Grows rapidly.


Explain the differences between vegetative and reproductive structures.

-Vegetative structures are somatic and responsible for non-sexual functions.
-Reproductive structures are responsible for reproduction.


Distinguish between long-day and short-day plants.

- Long-day plans require longer days to bloom and usually do so in summer
- Short-day plants require shorter days to bloom.


Define phytochrome. What are it's different forms? Which controls flowering?

-Phytochrome is a blue-green pigment found in many plants that regulates various developmental process.
-Phytochrome has P_fr (phytochrome far-red) and P_r (phytochrome red)
-P)fr controls flowering.


Explain how phytochrome controls flowering in short-day plants.

-The receptor inhibits transcription of the genes needed for flowering when P_fr binds to it. However, at the end of the long nights very little P_fr remains and so the inhibition falls and the plant flowers.


Explain how phytochrome levels control flowering in long-day plants.

Large enough amounts of P_fr remain at the end of short nights to bind to the receptor, which then promotes transcription of genes needed for flowering.


Explain the inter conversion of phytochrome so during daylight and darkness.

-P_r responds to sunlight wavelengths (660 nm) by converting to P_fr very quickly.
-P_fr is less stable than P_r and so it slowly converts back to P_r during the night.


Distinguish between red light and far-red light.

-Red light is of wavelengths around 660 nm.
- Far-red light is of wavelengths around 730 nm.


Define pollination.

The carrying of pollen grains (male sex cells) to the female sex cells for fertilization.


Describe how mutualism exists between flowers and pollinators.

Pollinators gain food from nectar and plants gain a means to transfer pollen to another plant. As both benefit, the relationship is mutualistic.


Describe what happens after pollination.

Fertilization occurs after pollination.
-Pollen grain travel down the from the stigma through the style to the ovary where fertilization occurs.
-The fertilized ovule develops into a seed and the ovary develops into a fruit.


Define germination.

The early growth of a seed.


State the functions of water, ideal temperature, and oxygen in the germination of a seed.

-Water is needed to rehydrate cells. Water washes out growth inhibitors. Necessary for metabolism.
-Ideal temperature is necessary as it allows for enzyme-catalyze do reactions.
-Oxygen is required for aerobic cellular respiration.


Outline the metabolic processes during germination of a starchy seed.

-Absorption of H2O into the seed.
-Formation of gibberellin hormone to stimulate mitosis and cell division.
-Amylase formed by gibberellin.
-Amylase breaks down starch into maltose.
-Maltose transported where needed.
-Maltose broken down into glucose by hydrolysis. Glucose used in germination.


Explain the function of the cuticle, upper epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, lower epidermis, stoma, guard cells, xylem, phloem, and vascular bundle.

Cuticle: prevents H2O loss, protects leaf
Upper epidermis: provides protection
Palisade mesophyll: tightly packed layer filled with chlorophyll for photosynthesis
Spongy mesophyll:loosely arranged layer to facilitate movement of O2, CO2, H2O vapor
Lower epidermis: protects leaf
Stoma: opening between guard cells, allows for H2O and gas exchange
Guard cells: surround stoma and control its opening and closing
Xylem: transports minerals and H2O from roots to shoots
Phloem: transports sugar and other products of photosynthesis from leaves to other parts of plant
Vascular bundle: Combo of xylem and phloem; commonly knows as veins, are made of dead cells.