3.2 Chromosomes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.2 Chromosomes Deck (6)
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Describe a prokaryotic chromosome. Why is it considered to be naked.

Consists of a circular DNA molecule containing all the genes needed for the basic life processes of the cell. Considered naked because it is not associated with any proteins.


What are plasmids? Why are they useful to bacteria? How are they useful to humans?

-Small extra DNA molecules that are commonly found in prokaryotes. They are small, circular, and naked.
-Plasmids contain a few genes that may be useful in the bacteria
-We can use them to transfer genes between species artificially


How are eukaryotic chromosomes different that prokaryotic ones?

-Composed of DNA and associated with histone proteins
-DNA is a single immensely long DNA molecule


Differentiate between haploid and diploid nuclei.

Haploid nuclei have one chromosome of each type while diploid nuclei have two homologous chromosomes of each type.


How is sex determined in humans?

Crossing of XX and XY parents. If XY, it's a boy. If XX, it's a girl.


What do karyograms show?

The chromosomes of an organism in homologous pairs of decreasing length.