3.2 Chromosomes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.2 Chromosomes Deck (6)
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1

Describe a prokaryotic chromosome. Why is it considered to be naked.

Consists of a circular DNA molecule containing all the genes needed for the basic life processes of the cell. Considered naked because it is not associated with any proteins.

2

What are plasmids? Why are they useful to bacteria? How are they useful to humans?

-Small extra DNA molecules that are commonly found in prokaryotes. They are small, circular, and naked.
-Plasmids contain a few genes that may be useful in the bacteria
-We can use them to transfer genes between species artificially

3

How are eukaryotic chromosomes different that prokaryotic ones?

-Composed of DNA and associated with histone proteins
-DNA is a single immensely long DNA molecule

4

Differentiate between haploid and diploid nuclei.

Haploid nuclei have one chromosome of each type while diploid nuclei have two homologous chromosomes of each type.

5

How is sex determined in humans?

Crossing of XX and XY parents. If XY, it's a boy. If XX, it's a girl.

6

What do karyograms show?

The chromosomes of an organism in homologous pairs of decreasing length.