3.1 Genes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1 Genes Deck (14)
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1

Define gene.

Heritable actor that consists of a length of DNA and influences a specific characteristic.

2

Define allele.

The various specific forms of a gene.

3

Define gene locus.

The position of a gene.

4

Define genome.

Haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism or in each cell of a multicellular organism.

5

Define mutation.

Random change in base sequence.

6

What is the difference between the p-arm and the q-arm?

The q-arm is longer.

7

What is the part that separates the p-arm and the q-arm?

Centromere.

8

What is similar and different about alleles?

Alleles code for one thing. Alleles for the same gene have the same gene locus, but slightly different base sequences.

9

What is a base substitution mutation?

A base in a sequence is replaced by a different base.

10

Describe the number of bases substituted and the effect on the polypeptide of a silent mutation.

Affects 1 base. Little to no change in the polypeptide, usually.

11

Describe the number of bases substituted and the effect on the polypeptide of a mis-sense mutation.

1 base. Can cause the protein to be nonfunctional.

12

Describe the number of bases substituted and the effect on the polypeptide of a nonsense mutation.

1 base. Stop codon produced early, causing the polypeptide to be shortened.

13

Describe the effect of sickle cell disease on hemoglobin production.

Glutamic acid replaced with valine, causing an R group change and thus the sickle cell shape of the blood.

14

Describe the symptoms and mortality of those with sickle cell anemia.

-problems with oxygen consumption
-low energy
-blood pressure problems