Flashcards in 3.1 Genes Deck (14)
Heritable actor that consists of a length of DNA and influences a specific characteristic.
The various specific forms of a gene.
Define gene locus.
The position of a gene.
Haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism or in each cell of a multicellular organism.
Random change in base sequence.
What is the difference between the p-arm and the q-arm?
The q-arm is longer.
What is the part that separates the p-arm and the q-arm?
What is similar and different about alleles?
Alleles code for one thing. Alleles for the same gene have the same gene locus, but slightly different base sequences.
What is a base substitution mutation?
A base in a sequence is replaced by a different base.
Describe the number of bases substituted and the effect on the polypeptide of a silent mutation.
Affects 1 base. Little to no change in the polypeptide, usually.
Describe the number of bases substituted and the effect on the polypeptide of a mis-sense mutation.
1 base. Can cause the protein to be nonfunctional.
Describe the number of bases substituted and the effect on the polypeptide of a nonsense mutation.
1 base. Stop codon produced early, causing the polypeptide to be shortened.
Describe the effect of sickle cell disease on hemoglobin production.
Glutamic acid replaced with valine, causing an R group change and thus the sickle cell shape of the blood.