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Flashcards in 1.2 Ultrastructure of Cells Deck (15)
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Label the bacterium. 

A. Villi

B. Flagellum

C. Nuclear area (nucleoid) containing DNA

D. Plasmid

E. Ribosome

F. Cytoplasm

G. Plasma Membrane

H. Cell wall

I. CapsuleNext


Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes, nuclei, mitochondrion presence, compartmentalization (organelle presence and membranes).

Prokaryote: Eukaryote

  • 70S (small) ribosomes: 80S (large) ribosomes
  • Nucleoid containing DNA: True nucleus containing DNA
  • No mitochondria: Mitochondria
  • Cell parts: Organelles
  • No internal membranes: Internal membranes enclose organelles


What are a few advantages of eukarytotic compartmentalization?

  • Enzymes and substrates for a certain process can be more concentrated than if spread across the cytoplasm
  • pH balance for a specific chemical process can be more easily maintained
  • Substances that can cause cellular damage can be kept inside the membrane of an organelle


What are the organelles of eukaryotic cells?

Nucleus, rER, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Mitochondrion, Free Ribosomes, Chloroplast, Vacuoles, Microtubules, Cilia and Flagella.


What is the function of the nucleus?

Contains chromosomes of DNA (chromatin). Replicates DNA. 


What is the function of the rER?

Synthesizes proteins to be carried to the golgi apparatus. Made of cisternae. Ribosomes present.


What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?

Made of cisternae. No ribosomes. Many vesicles. Processes proteins from the rER to be sent out of the cell. 


What is the function of lysosomes?

Formed by golgi vesicles? Break down ingested food in vesicles or break down defective vesicels.


What is the functionof mitochondrion?

Produce ATP for aerobic cellular respiration. Fat digestion.


Function of free ribosomes?

Synthesize proteins, release them into cytoplasm. Formed in nucleolus.


Function of chloroplast?

Filled with thylakoids. Produce glucose and other compounds by photosynthesis.


Function of vacuoles?

Plant cells have large vacuoles making up the majority of the cell. Animal cells absorb food and digest them in vacuoles. Unicellular organisms use vacuoles to transport materials in the cells?


Function of vesicles?

Transport of materials within the cell


Function of microtubules and centrioles?

Microtubules move chromosomes during cell division. Animal cells have centrioles which form anchor point for microtubules during cell division.


Function of cilia and flagella?

Whiplike structures projecting from cell surface. Flagella usually larger and only one is usually present and is used for movement. Cilia help control fluid currents.