Flashcards in Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) Deck (41):
What resulted in community members having higher expectations of accountability and efficiency in their police departments?
The widespread adoption of community policing
What strained local police budgets
National and international economic conditions
The greatest job qualification for today’s police executives is the ability to recognize and respond to what?
The swiftly changing issues and opportunities facing them
Violent crime rates nationwide are half what they were two decades ago, and many jurisdictions are experiencing record low crime rates not seen since the 1960s. True or False?
A variety of types of wrongful police behaviors, ranging from corruption to unlawful shootings, are at lower levels today than in the past. True or False?
Measurements of the extent to which members of the public trust and have confidence in the police are referred to as what?
"Legitimacy" and "Procedural justice."
The willingness of the public to cooperate with police, to provide information to the police, and to willingly obey the law, all of which can be affected by the department’s reputation for ________________.
Police executives to treat their employees with the same sense of legitimacy and procedural justice that applies to members is sometimes referred to as what?
“internal legitimacy” or “internal procedural justice.”
Over the last 30 years, public support for the police—often indexed as “trust and confidence” in the police—has or has not increased?
The percentage of Americans expressing “a great deal of confidence” in the police between 1980 and 2009 has generally ranged between ___ and ___ percent.
50 and 60 percent
According to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports, violent crime rates nationwide have dropped ___ since 1993.
To build a stronger partnership between the police and the community, we need a focus on what?
On what shapes public views about trust and confidence.
The belief that the police ought to be allowed to exercise their authority to maintain social order, manage conflicts and solve problems in their communities is called what?
Unlike police lawfulness, which is defined by the text of laws and by administrative and regulatory standards, legitimacy lies where?
Within the perceptions of the public.
Perceptions of legitimacy are subjective, and will vary among jurisdictions and within specific communities in those jurisdictions. True or False?
Research has found that members of minority groups focus on how they are treated by the police as a central cue to tell them if they are being racially profiled. T or F
The concept of legitimacy in policing is the same as the concepts of community policing. True or False?
“The police are the public and the public are the police” emphasized the need for the police to have _________ within the community they police.
Legitimacy - The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon the public approval of police actions.
For purposes of this general discussions of this topic, _____ is a relative term that denotes the extent to which a police department is perceived as morally just, honest, and worthy of trust and confidence.
Legitimacy in policing is not an absolute state, but rather a relative measure of people’s perceptions. True or False?
ideas of legitimacy and procedural justice apply not only to interactions between the police and the public. They are also relevant where?
To the internal dynamics of police departments.
Police cannot expect to argue that a policy or practice is legitimate if it is _______ ?
What became a controversial issue in New York City to the point it was considered a factor contributing to the election of Mayor Bill de Blasio in 2013. (pg. 18)
NY Police Department’s so-called “stop and frisk” practices.
Proponents of the stop-and-frisk initiatives argued what?
Large numbers of stops help police to get guns and drugs off the streets. In some cases, this is accomplished because stops result in arrests.
Proponents of "stop-and-frisk initiatives" believed frequent stops of pedestrians or motorists in high-crime neighborhoods deters people from carrying firearms, illegal drugs, or other contraband, because they know there is a risk of being stopped by police. True or False?
Opponents of large-scale stop-and-frisk practices argued what?
The large majority of street stops do not yield either guns or drugs, but they often result in the repeated stopping and humiliation of innocent people, which damages police-community relationships.
The Justice Department’s references to “the public’s trust [in the police] and willingness to cooperate with the police” echo the definition of what term?
What was U.S. District Judge Shira A. Sheindlin’s legal analysis of the Stop-and-Frisk practices?
Stop and frisk practices are effective in reducing crime was irrelevant for her purpose of deciding whether the practices are Constitutional.
The appeals court also criticized Judge Scheindlin, saying she failed to maintain an appearance of ___________ regarding the litigation.
June 2011, what other city settled a lawsuit regarding its stop-and-frisk practices?
The City of Philadelphia
Philadelphia Mayor Michael Nutter also signed a separate executive order to improve the handling of what?
Citizen complaints against the police.
The bulk of complaints against police officers are for what?
Commissioner Ramsey also contributed to procedural justice by acknowledging when residents make complaints of verbal abuse by an officer, the complaints often are valid OR invalid?
Disadvantaged communities tend to not rely on police services than do prosperous communities. True or False?
A 2009 survey by Pew Social Demographic Trends found that only what percent of African Americans had a great deal of confidence in local police officers to treat black and white people equally?
FOURTEEN (14 %)
What percent of white respondents who had a great deal of confidence that local police provide equal? treatment.
THRITY EIGHT (38%)
The basis of minority reactions to policing practices suggest the primary concerns raised by the minority community are about what?
If the police address the procedural justice, what in the minority community should increase?
What was one of the first major discussions of legitimacy and procedural justice in policing to receive national attention? (pg. 30)
The committee report regarding the arrest of Professor Gates by Sgt. Crowley of the Cambridge PD.
The police can most effectively build and maintain legitimacy by policing in ways that are consistent with what?
With public views about procedural justice.