Flashcards in Population Deck (47):
What is exponential growth?
a pattern where the growth rate constantly increases
What is a 'J' curve?
continued exponential growth
What is a 'S' curve?
slowing down of growth in the future
Physical factors affecting distribution of population? (6)
-quality of soil
Human factors affecting population? (3)
-Social (housing, healthcare, education, water)
-Political (stability, corruption)
Define 'birth rate'
the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year e.g. Afghanistan 46.2// UK 10.7
Define 'death rate'
the number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year e.g. Afghanistan 20// UK 10.1
Define 'natural change'
the difference between BR and DR e.g. UK slow natural increase
Define 'life expectancy'
the age to which you are expected to live e.g UK 81: male 79// female 83
Define 'infant mortality'
the number of children who die before their first birthday e.g. Afghanistan 150 per 1000// UK 5 per 1000
What is the DTM?
The Demographic Transition Model:
-helps show changes in population sizes
-can be useful to predict changes in population for future needs
What are the limitations of the DTM?
-falling death rates in MEDC's were due to medical discoveries and LEDC's didn't have these
-government policies may distort e.g. OCP
-based on progress in MEDC's and LEDC's may not follow this path
What are the 4 factors affecting population growth?
4.Improving status of women
How does 'agricultural change' affect population growth?
-technology that improves yields, saves labour and leads to rapid economic growth =smaller families desirable
-industrial revolution required more workers= larger families desirable
How does 'urbanisation' affect population growth?
-cities have higher employment rates and so child labour is of less value in cities than rural
How does 'education' affect population growth?
-standard of living improves which makes it desirable to have less children
-fewer children means more money and time concentrated on them which gives them better chances
-children are economic disadvantages
How does 'improving status of women' affect population growth?
-1/5th working women do not have children
-direct correlation between a women's level of education and number of children she has (negative)
-good standard of living requires 2 incomes
-equality in the workplace improved
What are the characteristics of Stage 1 of a population pyramid? e.g. Amerindians
-very low life expectancy
-very high BR
-very high DR
What are the characteristics of Stage 2 of a population pyramid? e.g. Afghanistan
-low life expectancy
-high population growth rate
What are the characteristics of Stage 3 of a population pyramid? e.g. Brazil
-higher life expectancy
What are the characteristics of Stage 4 of a population pyramid? e.g. USA
-high life expectancy
What are the characteristics of Stage 5 of a population pyramid? e.g. Germany
-low infant mortality
-very high life expectancy
-very low BR
meeting the needs of of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet thier needs
What are some social impacts of rapid population growth?
-lack of services(healthcare and education)
-lack of food and water
-increase in health problems
What are some economic impacts of rapid population growth?
-lack of jobs(rise in unemployment)
-cycle of poverty in new generations
What are some political impacts of rapid population growth?
-youthful population will lead to new govt policies aimed at this
-fewer elderly so lack of investments on policies
How can birth control programmes help control the population?
-the govt promote contarception and education
-help families plan and limit
-helps sustainable development as it wont use up resources
How can immigration laws help control the population?
-control numbers based on skills, and older with no children
What does the dependency ratio tell us?
that for every 100 workers in the country approximately 67 people are dependant on them
What are some social problems faced by the elderly?(4)
-mobility restricted(lack of public services)
-long waits for surgery
-fearful of crime
Define 'replacement rate'
the number of births that will replace a population of the same size e.g. UK 2.1 (per woman)
Define 'fertility rate'
the average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime
What is Canada's, Australia's and Europe's fertility rate?
What is Africa's, India's and South America's fertility rates?
LEDC's: 2-3// 4-8
the movement of people from one place to another
the movement of people into a country
the movement of people out of a country
Define 'net migration'
the difference between immigration and emigration
Define 'forced migration'
compelled to move from one area under the influence of push factors
Define 'voluntary migration'
encouraged to move to an area under the influence of pull factors
-lack of food(Ethipians migrated to Sudan)
-natural disaster(Colombians move out due to earthquakes)
-war(Albanians migrated to Italy due to civil war)
-escape religious or political persecution(North Korea)
-jobs(Polish migrate to UK)
-better climate(Britains move to Spain for retirement)
-improved amnesties//better quality of life
Define 'asylum seeker'
1.flees their country in fear of life in risk
2.arrives in receiving country
3.makes themselves known to the authorities
4.exercises their legal rights to apply for sanctuary
one who proved to the authorities that would face persecution in source country(successful asylum seeker application+granted stay)
Define 'illegal immigrant'
arrived in recipient country illegally(overstayed authorised stay and has no legal permission)
What are some economic problems faced by elderly?(3)
-cannot afford to lead healthy lives
-cannot afford the cost of residential homes(vulnerable)