Population Flashcards Preview

Human Geography > Population > Flashcards

Flashcards in Population Deck (47):
1

What is exponential growth?

a pattern where the growth rate constantly increases

2

What is a 'J' curve?

continued exponential growth

3

What is a 'S' curve?

slowing down of growth in the future

4

Physical factors affecting distribution of population? (6)

-relief
-climate
-quality of soil
-vegetation
-accessibility
-natural resources

5

Human factors affecting population? (3)

-economic (jobs)
-Social (housing, healthcare, education, water)
-Political (stability, corruption)

6

Define 'birth rate'

the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year e.g. Afghanistan 46.2// UK 10.7

7

Define 'death rate'

the number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year e.g. Afghanistan 20// UK 10.1

8

Define 'natural change'

the difference between BR and DR e.g. UK slow natural increase

9

Define 'life expectancy'

the age to which you are expected to live e.g UK 81: male 79// female 83

10

Define 'infant mortality'

the number of children who die before their first birthday e.g. Afghanistan 150 per 1000// UK 5 per 1000

11

What is the DTM?

The Demographic Transition Model:
-helps show changes in population sizes
-can be useful to predict changes in population for future needs

12

What are the limitations of the DTM?

-falling death rates in MEDC's were due to medical discoveries and LEDC's didn't have these
-government policies may distort e.g. OCP
-based on progress in MEDC's and LEDC's may not follow this path

13

What are the 4 factors affecting population growth?

1.Agricultural change
2.Urbanisation
3.Education
4.Improving status of women

14

How does 'agricultural change' affect population growth?

-technology that improves yields, saves labour and leads to rapid economic growth =smaller families desirable
-industrial revolution required more workers= larger families desirable

15

How does 'urbanisation' affect population growth?

-cities have higher employment rates and so child labour is of less value in cities than rural

16

How does 'education' affect population growth?

-standard of living improves which makes it desirable to have less children
-fewer children means more money and time concentrated on them which gives them better chances
-children are economic disadvantages

17

How does 'improving status of women' affect population growth?

-1/5th working women do not have children
-direct correlation between a women's level of education and number of children she has (negative)
-good standard of living requires 2 incomes
-equality in the workplace improved

18

What are the characteristics of Stage 1 of a population pyramid? e.g. Amerindians

HIGH FLUCTUATING:
-very low life expectancy
-very high BR
-very high DR

19

What are the characteristics of Stage 2 of a population pyramid? e.g. Afghanistan

EARLY EXPANDING:
-high BR
-high DR
-low life expectancy
-high population growth rate

20

What are the characteristics of Stage 3 of a population pyramid? e.g. Brazil

LATE EXPANDING:
-lowering BR
-lowering DR
-higher life expectancy

21

What are the characteristics of Stage 4 of a population pyramid? e.g. USA

LOW FLUCTUATING:
-low BR
-low DR
-high life expectancy

22

What are the characteristics of Stage 5 of a population pyramid? e.g. Germany

NATURAL DECREASE:
-low infant mortality
-shrinking population
-very high life expectancy
-very low BR

23

Define 'sustainability'

meeting the needs of of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet thier needs

24

What are some social impacts of rapid population growth?

-lack of services(healthcare and education)
-lack of food and water
-increase in health problems

25

What are some economic impacts of rapid population growth?

-lack of jobs(rise in unemployment)
-increased poverty
-cycle of poverty in new generations

26

What are some political impacts of rapid population growth?

-youthful population will lead to new govt policies aimed at this
-fewer elderly so lack of investments on policies

27

How can birth control programmes help control the population?

-the govt promote contarception and education
-help families plan and limit
-helps sustainable development as it wont use up resources

28

How can immigration laws help control the population?

-control numbers based on skills, and older with no children

29

What does the dependency ratio tell us?

that for every 100 workers in the country approximately 67 people are dependant on them

30

What are some social problems faced by the elderly?(4)

-feel isolated
-mobility restricted(lack of public services)
-long waits for surgery
-fearful of crime

31

Define 'replacement rate'

the number of births that will replace a population of the same size e.g. UK 2.1 (per woman)

32

Define 'fertility rate'

the average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime

33

What is Canada's, Australia's and Europe's fertility rate?

MEDC's: 1-2

34

What is Africa's, India's and South America's fertility rates?

LEDC's: 2-3// 4-8

35

Define 'migration'

the movement of people from one place to another

36

Define'immigration'

the movement of people into a country

37

Define 'emigration'

the movement of people out of a country

38

Define 'net migration'

the difference between immigration and emigration

39

Define 'forced migration'

compelled to move from one area under the influence of push factors

40

Define 'voluntary migration'

encouraged to move to an area under the influence of pull factors

41

Push factors:

-lack of food(Ethipians migrated to Sudan)
-natural disaster(Colombians move out due to earthquakes)
-war(Albanians migrated to Italy due to civil war)
-escape religious or political persecution(North Korea)

42

Pull Factors:

-jobs(Polish migrate to UK)
-better climate(Britains move to Spain for retirement)
-improved amnesties//better quality of life

43

Define 'asylum seeker'

1.flees their country in fear of life in risk
2.arrives in receiving country
3.makes themselves known to the authorities
4.exercises their legal rights to apply for sanctuary

44

Define 'refugee'

one who proved to the authorities that would face persecution in source country(successful asylum seeker application+granted stay)

45

Define 'illegal immigrant'

arrived in recipient country illegally(overstayed authorised stay and has no legal permission)

46

What are some economic problems faced by elderly?(3)

-cannot afford to lead healthy lives
-pensions crisis
-cannot afford the cost of residential homes(vulnerable)

47

What is a political problem faced by the elderly?

-face prejudice in the work place