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Flashcards in Power of Moral Theories Deck (35)
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1

Act Utilitarianism 

Says that the right actions are those that diretcly produce the greatest  overall good (Everyone considered, only focus on the consequences that follow from the act & dont care about rules)

2

Theories of value

Moral theories concerned with the goodness of persons or things

3

In a consequentialist view good can be efined as what?

Pleasure, happiness, well-being, flourishing, knownledge, etc

4

An argument moral premise is back up by _____________ (moral theories) from which a moral premise is dervied 

Theories of obligations 

5

When evaluating moral theories first must make sure it meets the maximum requirement of ___________

Coherence

6

Moral Code

A set of  rules (Like dont kill or protect human life)(Have conflicts with rules so not used for plasuible theory)

7

What are the two major theories?

1. Consequentialist (teological)

2. Nonconsequenlist moral theories

8

What are the two main Consequentialist Theories?

1. Utlilitarianism 

2. Ethical Egoism 

9

Coherent theory

Internally consistent, its central claims are consistent with each other (Dont contrdict each other)

10

Criterion 3: Usefulness in moral problem solving

All good theories are useful but usefull ness doesnt make a theory good 

11

12

Nonconsequenlist Moral Theories

Say that the rightness of an action doesnt depends on its consequences but mostly on the nature of the action itself

13

What two thing would an internally consistent theory not assert?

1. Actions are right if & only they are natural

2. It is morally right to use unnatural means to save a life

14

Criterion 2: Consistency with our moral experiences

A plausible moral theory should be consistent with moral background knownledge

15

What are the 3 criteria of adequancy?

1. Criterian 1: Consistency with considered judgement

2. Criterian 2: Consistency with our moral experiences

3. Criterian 3: usefulness in moral Problem solving 

16

A theory in conflict with our moral experiences is __________ 

False (Its inconsistent if it implies that we dont have one or more of these basic moral experiences)

17

Reflective Equilibrium 

When judgement & theory fit together as closely as possible with maximum agreement between them

18

Classic Utilitarism (Moral Theory)

Right actions are those that directly produce the greatest overall happiness(everyone considered) (consequences of actions)

19

Criterion 3 links between theory & considered judgement have to line up because _________ helps shape theories (its principle/ rule ) & a _________ sheds light on judgement & helps conflicts between judgement & other moral statements

Considered Judgement, A good Theory

20

Consequentialist (telologist)

Say that what makes an action right is its consequences (The rightness of the action depends on how good it produce)

21

What are two main types of Utilitarianism?

1. Act Utilitarianism 

2. Rule- Utilitarianism

22

Ethical Egoism

Says that morally right actions is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil (For yourself, the action that benefits you the most)

23

Coherence

Is eligible to be evaluated using the criteria of adequancy 

24

Moral criteria of adequancy

Used to evaluate the adequnacy of moral theories 

25

Utilitariiansism 

Says that the morally right action is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil (Everyone considered, the right action maximizes good)

26

Natural Law Theory 

That the morally right action is the one that follows the dicates of nature (The morally right action is the one that follows human nature)

27

Theories of obligation

Moral theories concerned with the rightness or wrongness of actions (what makes an action right or wrong)

28

Lying is immoral because it goes against human nature

Telling the truth is natural for human because they are social creatures with an inborn tendency to care about the welfare of others 

Truth telling helps humans get along, maintain viable societies & show respect 

Lying is therefore unnatural & wrong... is an example of what type of arugment?

Natural Law argument

29

Divine Command Theory 

Morally right action is the one that god commands (ten commendments)

30

What are examples of moral experience?

1. We sometimes make a moral judgement

2. We often give reasons for a particular moral beliefs

3. We are sometimes mistaken in our moral beliefs 

4. We occasionally have moral disagreements

5. We occasionally commit wrongful acts