Says that the right actions are those that diretcly produce the greatest overall good (Everyone considered, only focus on the consequences that follow from the act & dont care about rules)
Theories of value
Moral theories concerned with the goodness of persons or things
In a consequentialist view good can be efined as what?
Pleasure, happiness, well-being, flourishing, knownledge, etc
An argument moral premise is back up by _____________ (moral theories) from which a moral premise is dervied
Theories of obligations
When evaluating moral theories first must make sure it meets the maximum requirement of ___________
A set of rules (Like dont kill or protect human life)(Have conflicts with rules so not used for plasuible theory)
What are the two major theories?
1. Consequentialist (teological)
2. Nonconsequenlist moral theories
What are the two main Consequentialist Theories?
2. Ethical Egoism
Internally consistent, its central claims are consistent with each other (Dont contrdict each other)
Criterion 3: Usefulness in moral problem solving
All good theories are useful but usefull ness doesnt make a theory good
Nonconsequenlist Moral Theories
Say that the rightness of an action doesnt depends on its consequences but mostly on the nature of the action itself
What two thing would an internally consistent theory not assert?
1. Actions are right if & only they are natural
2. It is morally right to use unnatural means to save a life
Criterion 2: Consistency with our moral experiences
A plausible moral theory should be consistent with moral background knownledge
What are the 3 criteria of adequancy?
1. Criterian 1: Consistency with considered judgement
2. Criterian 2: Consistency with our moral experiences
3. Criterian 3: usefulness in moral Problem solving
A theory in conflict with our moral experiences is __________
False (Its inconsistent if it implies that we dont have one or more of these basic moral experiences)
When judgement & theory fit together as closely as possible with maximum agreement between them
Classic Utilitarism (Moral Theory)
Right actions are those that directly produce the greatest overall happiness(everyone considered) (consequences of actions)
Criterion 3 links between theory & considered judgement have to line up because _________ helps shape theories (its principle/ rule ) & a _________ sheds light on judgement & helps conflicts between judgement & other moral statements
Considered Judgement, A good Theory
Say that what makes an action right is its consequences (The rightness of the action depends on how good it produce)
What are two main types of Utilitarianism?
1. Act Utilitarianism
2. Rule- Utilitarianism
Says that morally right actions is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil (For yourself, the action that benefits you the most)
Is eligible to be evaluated using the criteria of adequancy
Moral criteria of adequancy
Used to evaluate the adequnacy of moral theories
Says that the morally right action is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil (Everyone considered, the right action maximizes good)
Natural Law Theory
That the morally right action is the one that follows the dicates of nature (The morally right action is the one that follows human nature)
Theories of obligation
Moral theories concerned with the rightness or wrongness of actions (what makes an action right or wrong)
Lying is immoral because it goes against human nature
Telling the truth is natural for human because they are social creatures with an inborn tendency to care about the welfare of others
Truth telling helps humans get along, maintain viable societies & show respect
Lying is therefore unnatural & wrong... is an example of what type of arugment?
Natural Law argument
Divine Command Theory
Morally right action is the one that god commands (ten commendments)
What are examples of moral experience?
1. We sometimes make a moral judgement
2. We often give reasons for a particular moral beliefs
3. We are sometimes mistaken in our moral beliefs
4. We occasionally have moral disagreements
5. We occasionally commit wrongful acts