The only thing that is good in the world is pleasure & the only thing that is bad in the world is pain
Principle of humanity
Always treat human beings (yourself included) as an end, & never as a mere mean
We have the baility to decide what principle to follow in living our lives
What are some advantages of kant's principle of humanity?
1. Gives a good explanation for why slavery is wrong
2. Allows for human rights
3. Makes sense of holding people accountable for their actions
Kant believes that actions that are inconsistent with everyone else acting the same way are _________
Is the principle of action you give youself when you are about to do something (your actions & intensions)
To treat someone as a ______ is to use them to help accomplish some goal that you have
As a means
Kant belives humans have a special moral status because we are what?
We have the ability to use reason to help us figure out what to do
To treat someone as an ______ is to treat them with the respect they deserve as rational & autonomous things
As an End
Kant belives only actions that are done from the _______ _________ have moral worth
Only cares about what rule if everyone followed it would produced the most good over bad
What is morally valuable to kant?
The only thing that is morally valuable is the good will
Actions that fail the test of universalizabilty are _______
Kant's principle of universalizabilty
An act is morally acceptable if & only if its maxium is univeralizable
To treat someone as a _________ is to use them to help accomplish some goal that you have but without treating them with the respect they deserve as rational & autonomous beings
As a mere means
Only actions that have moral worth are those that we do _________ they are our moral Duty
Because they are our moral duty
What are the two non-consequentalist moral principles?
1. Kant's principle of universalizablity
2. Kant's principle of humanity
What are some disadvantages of Kant's principle of humanity?
1. Its not entirely clear how we can apply this principle in every situation
2. It doesnt allow for the moral importance of children, the mentally disabled, & animals
Act - Utilitarianism
Only cares about the what actions produces the most good over bad (everyone considered)
What are the two parts to Good Will?
1. Being able to reliably know what your duty is
2. Being committed to doing your duty for its own sake (Doing it because its the right thing to do)
What are the two parts of consequentialsim?
2. Rule- Utilitarianism
What is the moral value for utilitarianism?
The only thing morally valuable is pleasure & the only thing that is morally disvalubale is pain
Kant's test for universalizablity
1. Formulate your maxims clearly(state your actions & intensions)
2. Imagine a world in which everyone supports & acts on your maxim
3. Ask yourself whether the goal of your actions can be achieved in such a world (If yes then action is morally permissible & if no then is not morally permissible)
Test whether our actions are consistent with everyone else acting in the very same way