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Flashcards in Practical Exam 2 Deck (75):
1

Axillary Vein

Runs superior to the axillary artery.

2

Axillary Artery

Subclavian Artery leads to Axillary Artery, which leads to the Brachial Artery.
This all lies deep to the Axillary Vein

3

Superior Thoracic Artery

First section of the Axillary Artery- Medial Side of the Pectoralis Minor
Along the upper border of the pectoralis minor. It supplies branches to the first and second intercostal spaces as well as to the superior portion of serratus anterior.

4

Thoracoacromial Artery and Branches

Second Section of the Axillary Artery- Deep to the Pectoralis Minor
4 Branches: Clavicular, Pectoral, Deltoid, and Acromial

5

Lateral Thoracic Artery

Second Section of the Axillary Artery- Deep to the Pectoralis Minor
Provides blood for the Serratus Anterior muscle and Pec Major

6

Subscapular Artery

Third Section of the Axillary Artery- Lateral to the Pectoralis Minor
The subscapular artery branches off posteriorly into two stems, approximately four centimeters from its origin; its first branch is the circumflex scapular artery and its second is the thoracodorsal artery.

7

Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery

Third Section of the Axillary Artery- Lateral to the Pectoralis Minor
At the lower border of the subscapularis, and runs posteriorly with the axillary nerve through the quadrangular space. It feeds the teres minor and deltoid muscles.

8

Anterior Circumflex Humeral Artery

Third Section of the Axillary Artery- Lateral to the Pectoralis Minor
It is one of two circumflexing arteries. The anterior is considerably smaller than the posterior. The anterior humeral circumflex artery runs horizontally, beneath the coracobrachialis and short head of the biceps brachii muscle, in front of the neck of the humerus.

9

Musculocutaneous NerveI*******

This innervates the three muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm.
From the one of the five Branches portion of the Brachial Plexus.
It's the lateral part of the "M"

10

Lateral Cord*******
-Lateral Pectoral Nerve

Lat Pec innervates Pectoralis Major

11

Medial Cord*******
-Medial Pectoral Nerve
-Medial Cutaneous Nerve of Arm
-Medial Cutaneous Nerve of Forearm

-Med Pec innervates Pectoralis Major and Minor
-Med Cute Nerve of Arm innervates the skin of the arm
-Med Cute Nerve of Forearm innervates the skin of the forearm.

12

Median Nerve*******
-Deep Branch
Recurrent Branch of Median Nerve
Common Palmar Digital Branch
Proper Palmar Digital Nerve

-Rec Branch of Med Nerve innervates Thenar muscles
-Com Palm Digit Branch innervates Digits 2/3

13

Ulnar Nerve******

-

14

Posterior Cord*******
-Axillary Nerve
-Radian Nerve
-Upper Subscapular Nerve
-Middle Subscapular (Thoracodorsal)
-Lower Subscapular

-

15

Long Thoracic Nerve******

Innervates the Serratus Anterior

16

Intermuscular Septum

Fascia of the arm (the top part of the upper limb)

17

Coracobrachialis

Origin: Tip of coracoid process of scapula
Insertion: Middle third of medial surface of humerus
Action: Helps to flex and adduct arm
Blood Supply: Muscular branches of brachial artery
Nerve: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6 and C7) (C5, C6, C7)

18

Bracialis Muscle

Deep to the Biceps Brachii
Origin: Anterior surface of the distal half of the humerus
Insertion: The coronoid process of the ulna
Action: Flexes the forearm
Blood Supply: Muscular branches of brachial artery and Recurrent Radial Artery
Nerve: Musculocutaneous Nerve

19

Biceps Brachii
-Long Head
-Short Head

Origin: Long: Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula and Short: Coracoid process of the scapula
Insertion: Long: Radial tuberosity and Short: bicipital aponeurosis
Action: Flexes elbow flexes and abducts shoulder supinates radioulnar joint in the forearm
Blood Supply: Brachial artery
Nerve: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5–C7)

20

Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of Forearm*******

-

21

Cubital Fossa

Elbow Pit
The region of the upper limb in front of the elbow joint. It is a triangular area with the following boundaries: laterally, brachioradialis muscle. medially, pronator teres muscle. superiorly, an imaginary line from the medial and lateral epicondyles.

22

Brachial Artery
-Deep Artery of Arm (and Radial Nerve)
-Superior Ulnar Collateral
-Inferior Ulnar Artery

Axillary Artery turns into the Brachial Artery
-Deep Artery of Arm Branches off most proximally and goes to the posterior side of the arm and eventually attaches to the Radial Collateral/Recurrent.
-Superior Ulnar Collateral is the next branch off that runs towards the Ulna with the Ulnar Nerve
-Inferior Ulnar Artery is the last branch off before the Radial and Ulna branch take over.

23

Ulnar Artery

Brachial Artery eventually splits into the Ulnar Artery and Radial Artery shortly after it crosses the cubital fossa.
After branching off, there is an Anterior and Posterior Ulnar Recurrent Artery. There is also the Common Interosseus Artery which has an Anterior and Posterior branch.
It continues along the Ulna on the Posterior Side.

24

Radial Artery

Brachial Artery eventually splits into the Ulnar Artery and Radial Artery shortly after it crosses the cubital fossa.
It continues along the Radius on the Posterior side.

25

Cephalic Vein

It's in the Deltopectoral groove and follows the lateral side of the upper limb.

26

Basilic Vein

The basilic vein passes along the back of the forearm on the ulnar side for a distance and then curves to the surface below the elbow. It continues to move up the medial side until it reaches the middle of the upper arm. There, it enters deep into the tissues and joins the brachial vein. As the basilic and brachial veins merge, they form the axillary vein.

27

Median Antecubital Vein

This is the vein that runs from the Cephalic Vein to the Basilic Vein.
It's the Vein that blood is drawn from.

28

Triceps Brachii
-Long Head- Origin Infraglenoid
-Lateral Head- Lateral o Radial Groove
-Medial Head

Origin: Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula; Lateral head: posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove; Medial head: posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove
Insertion: Proximal end of olecranon process of ulna and fascia of forearm
Action: Chief extensor of forearm; long head steadies head of abducted humerus
Nerve: Radial nerve (C6, C7 and C8)
Blood Supply: Branches of deep brachial artery

29

Radial Groove

The shallow groove that passes around the shaft of the humerus (between the humeral attachments of the lateral and medial heads of the triceps brachii). Radial Nerve and Deep Brachial Artery within the groove.

30

Brachioradialis

Origin: Lateral Supracondylar ridge of Humerus
Insertion: Styloid Process of Ulna
Action: Flexes forearm of Elbow
Blood Supply: Radial recurrent artery
Nerve: Radial Nerve (C5, C6)

31

Anconeus

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Insertion: Posterior olecranon process of ulna
Action: Extends the forearm at the elbow
Blood Supply: The Middle Collateral Artery from the Profunda Brachii Artery
Nerve: Radial Nerve (C7, C8)

32

Medial Epicondyle- Common Tendon

Bump on the Medial Side of the Elbow.
Common Tendon goes from the Medial Epicondyle and serves as the attachment for Pronator Teres, Flexor, Carpi Radialis, Palmaris Longus, Flexor Digitorum, Superficialis, and Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

33

Pronator Teres

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna
Insertion: Middle of lateral surface of radius
Action: Pronates and flexes forearm (at elbow)
Blood Supply: Ulnar artery, anterior recurrent ulnar artery
Nerve: Median nerve (C6, C7)

34

Flexor Carpi Radialis

Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
Insertion: Bases of second and third metacarpal bones
Action: Flexion and abduction at wrist
Blood Supply: Radial Artery
Nerve: Median nerve

35

Palmaris Longus

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Distal half of flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis
Action: Flexes hand (at wrist) and tightens palmar aponeurosis
Blood Supply: Ulnar artery
Nerve: Median nerve (C7 and C8)

36

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Base of 2nd metacarpal
Action: Flexes and abducts hand (at wrist)
Blood Supply: Ulnar artery
Nerve: Median nerve (C6 and C7)

37

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

Origin: Humeroulnar: medial epicondyle of humerus, ulnar collateral ligament, and coronoid process of ulna. Radial: superior half of anterior border of radius
Insertion:Digits 2-5
Action: Flexes Digits 2-5
Blood Supply: Ulnar artery
Nerve: Median nerve (C7, C8, T1)

38

Flexor Digitorum Profundis

Origin: Upper 3/4 of the anterior and medial surfaces of the body of the ulna, interosseous membrane and deep fascia of the forearm
Insertion: base of the distal phalanges of the fingers
Action: Flexes Digits 2-5
Blood Supply: anterior interosseous artery
Nerve: Median nerve (anterior interosseous)

39

Flexor Pollicis Longus

Origin: Anterior surface of radius and adjacent interosseous membrane
Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of thumb
Action: Flexes phalanges of 1st digit (thumb)
Blood Supply: Anterior interosseous artery
Nerve: Anterior interosseous nerve from median nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

40

Pronator Quadratus

Origin: Distal 1/4 of anterior surface of ulna
Insertion: Distal 1/4 of anterior surface of radius
Action: Pronates forearm; deep fibers bind radius and ulna together
Blood Supply: Anterior interosseous artery
Nerve: Anterior interosseous nerve from median nerve (C8 and T1)

41

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Origin: Lateral supracondyle ridge of humerus
Insertion: Base of 2nd metacarpal
Action: Extend and abduct hand at wrist joint
Blood Supply: Radial artery
Nerve: Radial nerve (C6 and C7)

42

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Base of 3rd metacarpal
Action: Extend and abduct hand at wrist joint
Blood Supply: Radial artery
Nerve: Deep branch of radial nerve (C7 and C8)

43

Extensor Digitorum

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Extensor expansions of medial four digits
Action: Extends medial four digits at metacarpophalangeal joints; Extends hand at wrist joint
Blood Supply: Interosseous recurrent and posterior interosseous arteries
Nerve: Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve

44

Extensor Digiti Minimi

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Extensor expansion of 5th digit
Action: Extends 5th digit at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Blood Supply: Interosseous recurrent artery
Nerve: Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve

45

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna
Insertion: Base of 5th metacarpal
Action: Extends and adducts hand at wrist joint
Blood Supply: Ulnar artery
Nerve: Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve

46

Extensor Retinaculum

An anatomical term for the thickened part of the antebrachial fascia that holds the tendons of the extensor muscles in place

47

Dorsal Interosseous

Four muscles in the back of the hand that act to abduct fingers 2, 3, 4 away from hand's midline and assist in flexion at the MP joints and extension at the IP joints of the Fingers 2, 3, 4.

48

Abductor Pollicis Longus

Origin: Posterior surfaces of ulna, radius and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Base of 1st metacarpal
Action: Abducts thumb and extends it at carpometacarpal joint
Blood Supply: Posterior interosseous artery
Nerve: Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve

49

Extensor Pollicis Brevis

Origin: Posterior surfaces of radius and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Action: Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at carpometacarpal joint
Blood Supply: Posterior interosseous artery
Nerve: Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve

50

Anatomical Snuffbox

Radial Artery and Radial Nerve in snuff box floor
Ulnar (medial) border: Tendon of the extensor pollicis longus.
Radial (lateral) border: Tendons of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis.
Proximal border: Styloid process of the radius.
Floor: scaphoid and trapezium.

51

Posterior Interosseus Nerve******

-

52

Axillary Sheath

Surrounds vessels and plexus

53

Intertendonous Connections

Connects between fingers.
That's why you can't extend one finger while all of the others are flexed.

54

Interosseus Membrane

A broad and thin plane of fibrous tissue that separates many of the bones of the body.

55

Dorsal Carpal Arch

An anatomical term for the combination (anastomosis) of dorsal carpal branch of the radial artery and the dorsal carpal branch of the ulnar artery near the back of the wrist.

56

Dorsal Metacarpal Artery

Deep to tendons on the Dorsal side of the hand.
Runs along the Metacarparls.

57

Dorsal Digital Artery

Deep to the tendons and run along the Dorsal side of the hand.
Run along the Digits.

58

Extensor Hood

Extensor Digitorum Tendon
Central Band
Lateral Band (insert of lumbrical/interosseus)

59

Extensor Pollicis Longus

Look for tendon to loop around radius
Origin: Posterior surface of middle 1/3 of ulna and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of thumb
Action: Extends distal phalanx of thumb at carpometacarpal and interphalangeal joints
Blood Supply: Posterior interosseous artery
Nerve: Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve

60

Supinator

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral and annular ligaments, supinator fossa and crest of ulna
Insertion: Lateral, posterior and anterior surfaces of proximal 1/3 of radius
Action: Supinates forearm (i.e., rotates radius to turn palm anteriorly)
Blood Supply: Recurrent interosseous artery
Nerve: Deep branch of radial nerve (C5 and C6)

61

Extensor Indicis

Origin: Posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Extensor expansion of 2nd digit
Action: Extends 2nd digit and helps to extend hand
Innervation: Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve
Blood Supply: Posterior interosseous artery

62

Palmar Aponeurosis

The thickened, central portion of the deep palmar fascia; it radiates toward the bases of the fingers from as a continuation of the tendon of the palmaris longus muscle.

63

Flexor Retinaculum

The fascia that covers the carpal tunnel

64

Palmaris Brevis

Origin: Skin on medial side of palm
Insertion: Palmar Aponeurosis
Action: Adducts and Extends Hand
Nerve: Superficial Branch of Ulnar Nerve
Blood Supply: Superficial Palmar Arch

65

Ulnar Nerve ******
Superficial Branch
Deep Branch

-

66

Carpal Tunnel

Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Profundus
Tendon of Flexor Pollicus Longus

67

Thenar Group

Opponens Pollicis
Abductor Pollicis Brevis
Flexor Pollicis Brevis

68

Hypothenar

Opponens Digiti Minimi
Abductor Digiti Minimi
Flexor Digiti Minimi

69

Adductor Pollicis

Origin: Oblique head: bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals, capitate, and adjacent carpals; Transverse head: anterior surface of body of 3rd metacarpal
Insertion: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Action: Draws 1st metacarpal laterally to oppose thumb toward center of palm and rotates it medially
Blood Supply: Deep palmar arterial arch
Nerve: Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1)

70

Palmar Interosseous Muscles

Origin: Palmar 1 - 3: Palmar surfaces of 2nd, 4th and 5th metacarpals (unipennate muscles)
Insertion: Palmar 1 - 3: Extensor expansions of digits and bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2, 4 and 5
Action: Palmar 1 - 3: Adduct digits toward axial line and assist lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints
Blood Supply: Palmar 1 - 3: Palmar metacarpal arteries
Nerve: Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1)

71

Any Lumbrical

Attached to EDP Tendon

72

Brachial Fascia

Deep fascia of the arm
A sleeve of tough connective tissue that is continuous at its proximal end with the pectoral fascia, the axillary fascia, and the deep fascia that covers the deltoid and latissimus dorsi muscles.

73

Radial Nerve

Innervates the Posterior compartment (extensors) of the forearm and the backhand sensory mostly.

74

Median Nerve

Innervates Digits 1-3.5 and the palm and all of the Anterior compartment (flexors) of the forearm.

75

Ulnar Nerve

Innervates the muscles of the hand (apart from the thenar muscles and two lateral lumbricals), flexor carpi ulnaris and medial half of flexor digitorum profundus and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the medial one and half fingers, and the associated palm area