Practical Exam 3- Thoracic Cavity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Practical Exam 3- Thoracic Cavity Deck (154):

Jugular Notch

Notch at the top of the Manubrium


Sternal Angle

In between the Manubrium and Body of the Sternum



Top part of the Sternum Middle of the chest


Xiphoid Process

Bottom Part of the Sternum


Identify Intercostal Spaces by #

Filled with three layers of Muscles
11 total Intercostal Spaces
Each is numbered according to the Rib that forms its superior boundary


External Intercostal Muscle

The most Superfical of the Intercostals
Elevates the rib that lies inferiority
Diagonal Fibers that run from Lateral at the top to Medial at the Bottom


Internal Intercostal Muscle

Middle of the Intercostals
Depresses the rib above
Fibers run perpendicular to the external fibers- Medial at the top to Lateral at the bottom


Innermost Intercostal Muscle

Identify Inner Surface of Chest
Deepest of the Intercostal Muscles
Same attachments, fiber directions, and action as the Internal Intercostal Muscle


Right and Left internal Thoracic Arteries and Veins

Anterior Intercostal Branch: Supplies Anterior Intercostal Space
Located Between the transversus thoracis muscle and the costal cartilages
They are the Vessels that run vertically along the edges of the sternum.


Transversus Thoracis

Attaches to the sternum and the costal cartilages 2-6
This muscle depresses the ribs.
Lies deep to the Innermost Intercostal costal Muscle and Superficial to the lungs.


Parietal Pluras

If air enters the Pleural Cavity (pneumothorax), the lung will collapse due to elasticity of its tissue
Excess Fluid (serous fluid or blood from trauma) may accumulate in the Plueral Cavity and Compress the lungs.
Four parts- Costal, Mediastinal, Diaphragmatic, and Cervical
Costal pleura lines the inner surface of the thoracic wall
Mediastinal pluera lines the Heart
Diaphragmatic Pleura lines the superior surface of the Diaphragm
Cervical Pleura extends Superior to the first rib

Then there is a Plueral Cavity deep to the Parietal Pleuras
The Visceral Pleura lies deep to the Pleural Cavity and covers the surface of the lungs


Left Lung Lobes

Split in to two: Superior, Inferior


Right Lung Lobes

Split into three: Superior, Middle, Inferior


Oblique Fissures

It exists on both lungs
Lies deep to the fifth rib
Referred to as the Major Fissure.
Separates the Inferior Lobe from the other lobes and runs all of the way around


Horizontal (Right Only) Fissures

Fissure in between the Superior and Middle Lobes
Does not run all of the way around
Referred to as the Minor or Transverse Fissure
Lies deep to the 4th Rib


Cardiac Notch (Left Only)

Superior Lobe of the Left Lung on the Anterior side
Anterior to the heart


Costal, Mediastinal, Diaphragmatic

These are the surfaces that touch the Ribs (Costal), Mediastinal (Heart), and Diaphragm (Diaphramatic)
The ribs will often leave a Cardiac Impression. The portion of the lungs that are touched by the Ribs


Lingula (Left Lung)

The little "Lip" part of the left lung inferior to the Cardiac Notch


Pulmonary Ligament

Ligament that is on the medialaspect of the lungs where different structures entrance the lungs: in the Hilum.



The root of the Lung
The Hilum are all of the structures on the inside of the border of the Pulmonary Ligament. This structures include Bronchi, Pulmonary Artery, Bronchial Artery, Bronchopulmonary Lymph Nodes, and Superior and Inferior Pulmonary Veins.


Pulmonary Artery

The large artery in the Hilum.
Carries blood from the heart to the Lungs to oxygenate the blood.
This lies superior to the other vessels in the lungs


External Intercostal Membrane

Anterior Between Costal Cartilages
The membrane that replaces the external intercostal muscle anteriorly, between costal cartilages.


Intercostal Vein, Artery, Nerve

Run in the plain between the Internal and Innermost Intercostal Muscle
Supply the Intercostal muscles, skin of the thoracic wall, and the parietal pleura
From superior to inferior is Vein, Artery, Nerve- VAN


Collateral Vessels

Superior Border Inferior Rib
Lies between the Ribs like "VAN", but "VAN" is next to the Superior Rib while the Collateral Vessels are near the Inferior Rib


Costomediastinal Recess

The space of the pleural cavity between the costal cartilages and the mediastinum
Only Medial to the Left Lung


Costodiaphragmatic Recess

The cleftlike extension of the pleural cavity between the diaphragm and the rib cage
Pleural effusions collect here when in the upright position
Inferior to both the Right and the Left Lung


Surfaces of the Lungs

Each lung has three surfaces: Costal, Mediastinal, and Diaphragmatic Surfaces


Phrenic Nerve

*Anterior to Root, Crosses Pericardium
The phrenic nerve is a bilateral, mixed nerve that originates in the neck and descends through the thorax to reach the diaphragm. As the only source of motor innervation to the diaphragm, this nerve has an important role in breathing
Passes Medial to the Lungs
Innervates the central part of the diaphragm, the pericardium and the mediastinal part of the parietal pleura.
1.5 cm anterior to root of lung


Vagus Nerve

*Posterior to Lung Root
Extending from the brain stem to the abdomen by way of multiple organs including the heart, esophagus, and lungs
Known as Cranial Nerve X, the vagus forms part of the involuntary nervous system and commands unconscious body procedures, such as keeping the heart rate constant and controlling food digestion.


Pulmonary Vein

They are the most inferior vessels of the Hilum
These contain oxygen rich RBC's and are returning them to the heart to be pumped to the rest of the body
A Superior and Inferior one
Feed into the Left Atrium
These Right and Left Pulmonary Veins come out of the posterior side of the Heart and appear horizontal shooting Left and Right


Trachea, Bronchopulmonary Lymph Node

Lymph Nodes are also in the Hilum
Lymph Nodes are between the Main Bronchus and Pulmonary Veins
Trachea is the rough, vaccum-tube-like structure that breaks into the Main, or Primary, Bronchus


Primary Bronchus

Also known as Main Bronchus
The main bronchus arising at the tracheal bifurcation and extending into the developing lung of the embryo.
This is the part that enters the Hilum
Left one is more at an angle and the Right one shoots straight down.


Secondary Bronchus

The next section following the Primary Bronchus
There are 2 in the Left Lung and 3 in the Right Lung


Tertiary Bronchus

The last section of the Bronchi and follows the Secondary Bronchus
Also called the Segmental Bronchi
Lower in the lung, they become smaller and break up into the Primary Bronchioles
The Left Lung has 9 and the Right Lung has 10


Bronchial Artery

The smallest of the vessels in the Hilum
The bronchial arteries are responsible for the majority of the oxygenated blood supply to the lung
Arise from the thoracic aorta
Supplies the Trachea, Bronchi, Lymph Nodes, Visceral Pleura, Esophagus (middle-third), Posterior Mediastinum, Vagus Nerve, and Vaso Vasorum


Fibrous Pericardium

The fibroserous sac enclosing the heart and the roots of the great vessels, composed of external (fibrous) and internal (serous) layers.
Fibrous Pericardium is the External Layer of the Pericardium, consisting of dense fibrous tissue.


Serous Pericardium
Parietal Layer
Visceral Layer

Serous Pericardium is the inner, serous portion of Pericardium, consisting of two layers, visceral and parietal
The Parietal Pericardium the Parietal Layer of the Serous Pericardium, which is in contact with the Fibrous Pericardium.
The Visceral Pericardium the inner layer of the Serous Pericardium, which is in contact with the heart and roots of the great vessels. Also called the Epicardium
Order from Superficial to deep is Fibrous, Serous (Parietal, Visceral)


Pericardial Cavity

The space between the layers of the pericardium that contains fluid that lubricates the membrane surfaces and allows easy heart movement


Right and Left Pericardiacophrenic Vessels

The Pericardiacophrenic artery is a branch of the Internal thoracic artery.
Supplies the Pericardium and Thoracic diaphragm
Arises from the Internal thoracic artery behind the First rib and descends along the Phrenic Nerve, between the pleura and the pericardium toward the diaphragm.


Vena Cava
Inferior Vena Cava
Superior Vena Cava

Large vein carrying deoxygenated blood into the heart into the Right Atria
Inferior vena cava carries blood from the lower body (Massive one coming out the back
Superior vena cava carries blood from the head, arms, and upper body (Massive one coming out the base of the heart in front) (Farthest to the Right side of the Base)


Pulmonary Trunk

Farthest to the Left side of the Base
Originates from the Right Ventricle and branches into the Right and Left Pulmonary Arteries, which lead to the lungs


Ascending Aorta

In between the Superior Vena Cava and the Pulmonary Trunk
The first part of the aorta begins at the aortic valve
It terminates as it exits the fibrous pericarium where it becomes the aortic arch


Ligamentum Ateriosum

Remnant of the ductus arteriosus formed within three weeks after birth
Between the Aortic Arch and the Pulmonary Trunk
Looks like a tiny connective Branch between the two


Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

Branch of Vagus to Larynx
Posterior to Ligamentum Arteriosum
Innervates the Larynx


Apex of Heart

Bottom tip of the Heart
Part of the Left Ventricle


Base of Heart

The Left and part of the Right Atrium
Where the emergence of the Great Vessels of the Heart occurs


Coronary Sulcus

Groove, Houses, Coronary Artery
A groove on the outer surface of the Heart marking the division between the Atria and the Ventricles.


Interventricular Sulcus

Shallow Groove
Has blood vessels and marks the separation between Ventricles on the Anterior and Posterior sides
The Anterior Interventricular Sulcus contains a branch of the left coronary artery and is on the anterior surface of the Heart
The Posterior Interventricular Sulcus contains another branch of a coronary artery and is on the Diaphragmatic Surface of the Heart


Crux of Heart

The area on the lower back side of the heart where the coronary sulcus and the posterior interventricular sulcus meet


Right and Left Atrium and Auricles

Auricles are attached to the Atrium
Both at the Superior end of the Heart
Auricle is a small, cone-shaped pouch which comes out from the upper and front part of the Atrium and overlaps the root of the Aorta
Atrium receive blood from the Body and the Lungs


Right and Left Ventricles

In charge of pumping blood to the Lungs and the Body
The larger parts of the heart (Significantly larger than the Artia)


Aortic Semilunar Valve

All valves function to prevent blood backflow into the heart, acting like doors between the chambers.
A Semilunar Valve between the Aorta and the Left Ventricle


Pulmonary Semilar Valve

A Semilunar Valve between the Right Ventricle and the Pulmonary Artery


Nodules and Lunules

On Pulmonary and Aortic Semilunar Valves
Helps seal the valves
Nodule is essentially the tip of it while the Lunules are along the edges to the Cusps.


Coronary Sinus

Back of Heart
A wide venous channel about 2.25 centimeters in length that receives blood from the Coronary Veins and empties into the Right Atrium of the Heart
Runs horizontally along the posterior side of the heart just inferior to the Left Atrium
It serves as the primary collector of cardiac venous blood


Great Cardiac Vein

In the Anterior Interventricular Sulcus
It's the Distal Portion of the Coronary Sinus
Returns the deoxygenated blood from the Anterior side of the Heart to the Coronary Sulcus


Middle Cardiac Vein

In the Posterior Interventricular Sulcus
The Vein that begins at the Apex of the Heart and Ascends within the Posterior Interventricular Sulcus to the Coronary Sinus.


Small Cardiac Vein

It accompanies the Right Coronary Artery in the Coronary Sulcus, from the right margin of the Right Ventricle, and emptying into the Coronary Sinus or the Middle Cardiac Vein.


Openings of Left Coronary Artery

Find in Aorta
Provides blood to the left side of the Heart
Splits in the Left Anterior Descending Artery and the Circumflex Artery


Anterior Interventricular branch

Also known as left anterior descending of LCA
The Left Anterior Descending Artery is known as the widowmaker
This branch sits in the Anterior Interventricular Sulcus
Runs with the Great Cardiac Vein


Circumflex Branch of LCA

Runs along side of the Coronary Sulcus
Supplies most of the Left Atrium


Right Coronary Artery

Find Opening in Aorta
Provides blood to the right ventricle, the right atrium, and the SA and AV nodes
Splits into the SA Nodal Artery, Right Posterior Descending Artery, Right Marginal Artery, and AV Nodal Artery


SA Nodal Branch

Immediately after the Right Coronary Artery branches off the Aorta, the SA Nodal Branch shoots up to the SA Node


Right Marginal Branch

With Small Cardiac Vein
Runs along the Inferior, Anterior side of the heart


Posterior Interventricular Branch

Also know as Right Posterior Descending Artery
Runs in the Posterior Interventricular Groove


AV Nodal Branch

At crux of Heart
Branches off at the Crux of the Heart and moves to the AV Node


Pectinate Muscle and Crista Terminalis

Mainly located in the Right Atrium, but also in the Left Atrium
Allows for stronger contractions
Pectinate Muscles are horizontal ridges of muscle
Crista Terminalis are the Vertical Ridge of muscle that connects the Pectinate Muscles


Fossa Ovalis

A depression in the Right Atrium of the Heart
At the wall between Right and Left Atrium.
It's the remnant of a thin fibrous sheet that covered the foramen ovale during fetal development


Sites of SA and AV Nodes

SA Node is right at the entrance of the Superior Vena Cava
AV Node is where the blood is pumped from the Right Atrium to Right Ventricle (Near the Tricuspid Valve)


Right AV Valve

Also know as the Tricuspid Valve
Between the Right Atrium and Right Ventricle
Three flap-like Cusps


Chordae Tendonae and Papillary mm

Chordae Tendonae are strong, fibrous strings attached to the leaflets (or cusps) of the heart on the ventricular side and originate from the papillary muscles, which project inward from the walls of the ventricle
Papillary Muscles are located in the Ventricles. They attach to the cusps of the AV valves (mitral and tricuspid valves) via the chordae tendineae and contract to prevent inversion or prolapse of these valves on systole
There are Anterior, Posterior, and Septal Papillary Muscles


Trabecula Carnae and Moderator Band

Trabula Carnae is the inner surface of the Ventricular wall and appears roughened because of these muscular ridges
Moderator Band is a large band that crosses the lower portion of the Right Ventricular Chamber


Conus Arteriosus

Smooth Area to Pulmonary Trunk
The cone shaped portion of the Right Ventricle inferior to the opening of the Pulmonary Trunk
It's just a big smooth area inferior to the Pulmonary Trunk


Valve of Formaen Ovale

Foramen Ovale allows blood to pass from the Right Atrium to the Left Atrium, bypassing the nonfunctional fetal lungs while the fetus obtains its oxygen from the placenta
A flap of tissue called the Septum Primum acts as a valve


Left AV Valve

Mitral Valve or Bicuspid Valve (Two Cusps)
Between the Left Atrium and Left Ventricle


Muscular Interventricular Septum

This separates the Right Ventricle from the Left Ventricle


Aortic Valve

The Aortic Valve separates the Left Ventricular outflow tract from the ascending aorta.
Also called the Left Semilunar Valve
Has 3 Cusps: the left coronary cusp, the right coronary cusp, and the non-coronary cusp


Camper's Fascia

Superficial Fatty Layer
Looks like Popcorn


Membranous Layer
Scarpa's Fascia

Deeper Layer
It attaches to the Fascia Lata of the thigh and is continuous with named fascias in the Perineum


Xiphisternal Junction

The connection between the Xiphoid Process and the Body of the Sternum


Xiphoid Process

The most Inferior portion of the Sternum


Costal Margin

The border of the rib cage that is cartilage of ribs 7-11 instead of bone


Pubic Crest

The area that is on top of and on either side of the Pubic Symphysis


Pubic Tubercle

The bone protrusion that is on either side of the pubic symphysis


Anterior Superior Iliac Spine

The part of the Ilium that can be palpated from the anterior side.


Iliac Crest

The Superior portion on the Posterior end of the Ilium that can be palpated from the posterior side


Tubercle of Iliac Crest

The portion of the Ilium that is often referred to as the hip bone


Pecten Pubis (Pectineal Line)

The area that is immediately lateral to the Pubic Crest


External Oblique

Origin: External Surfaces of Ribs 5-12
Insertion: Linea Alba, Pubic Tubercle, Anterior Half of Iliac Crest
Action: Compresses and Supports Abdominal Viscera, Flexes and Rotates Trunk
Nerve: Ventral Rami of 6 Inferior Thoracic Nerves
Blood Supply: Superior and Inferior Epigastric Arteries


Internal Oblique

Origin: Thoracolumbar Fascia, Anterior 2/3 of Iliac Crest, Lateral Half of Inguinal Ligament
Insertion: Inferior Borders of Ribs 10-12, Linea Alba, Pubis via Conjoint Tendon
Action: Compresses and Supports Abdominal Viscera, Flexes and Rotates Trunk
Nerve: Ventral Rami of 6 Inferior Thoracic and First Lumbar Nerves
Blood Supply: Superior and Inferior Epigastric and Deep Circumflex Iliac Arteries


Transversus Abdominis

Origin: Internal Surfaces of Costal Cartilages 7-12, Thoracolumbar Fasic, Iliac Crest, Lateral Third of Inguinal Ligament
Insertion: Linea Alba with aponeurosis of Internal Oblique, Pubic Crest, and Pecten Pubis via Conjoint Tendon
Action: Compresses and Supports Abdominal Viscera
Nerve: Ventral Rmai of 6 Inferior Thoracic and First Lumbar Nerves
Blood Supply: Deep Circumflex Iliac and Inferior Epigastric Arteries


Pyramidalis (May be Absent)

Origin: Body of Pubis, Anterior to Rectus Abdominis
Insertion: Linea Alba
Action: Tenses Linea Alba
Nerve: Iliohypogastric Nerve
Blood Supply: Inferior Epigastric Artery


External Oblique Aponeurosis

The fibrous/tendonous part of the External Oblique
The portion of the aponeurosis attached to the Pubic bone forms the Superficial Inguinal Ring by splitting into Medial and Lateral Crura.


Superficial Inguinal Ring

The split in the Aponqurosis where the Spermatic Cord passes through


Lateral (Inferior) Crus

Forms the Lateral margin of the Superficial Inguinal Ring
These fibers attach to the Pubic Tubercle


Intercrural Fibers

They run from Lateral to Medial
Delicate Fibers that span across the Crura Superolateral to the Superficial Inguinal Ring.
They prevent the crura from spreading apart


Medial (Superior) Crus

Forms the Medial Margin of the Superficial Inguinal Ring
These fibers attach to the Pubic Crest


Inguinal Ligament

The Inferior border of the Aponeurosis of the External Oblique Muscle
It spans from the Anterior Superior Iliac Spine to the Pubic Tubercle
Vessels and Nerve ext the abdominal cavity and enter the lower limb by passing Posterior to the Inguinal Ligament


Ilioinguinal Nerve

Courses through the Inguinal Canal to emerge at the Superficial Inguinal Ring
Lies anterior to the Spermatic Cord (Round Ligament of the Uterus)
Supplies sensory fibers to the skin on the anterior surface of the external genitalia and the medial surface of the thigh


Cremaster Muscle and Fascia

Small bundle of fibers that connects the Internal Oblique Muscle to the Superficial side of the Spermatic Cord or Round Ligament
This muscle is the contribution of the Internal Oblique Muscle to the coverings of the Spermatic Cord
In females it surrounds the Round Ligament of the Uterus


Iliohypogastric Nerve

Runs parallel to the Ilioinguinal Nerve and Superior to it


Deep Inguinal Ring

The point at which the Gubernaculum passed through the Transversalis Fasciaduring development
Located Superior to the midpoint of the Inguinal Ligament
In males, the Ductus Deferens passes through it


Inferior Epigastric Vessels

They are located within the layer of Extraperitoneal Fasca
They lie Deep to the Spermatic Cord


Rectus Sheath

The Aponeurosis of the 3 flat abdominal muscles
The Rectus Sheath contains the Rectus Abdominis Muscle, the Pyramidialis Muscle, the Super and Inferior Epigastric Vessels, and the terminal ends of the Ventral Rami of the Spinal Nerves T7-T12


Tendinous Intersections

These are the attachments of the Rectus Abdominus to the Anterior Wall of the Rectus Sheath
These are the horizontal lines in between the muscles that make different "packs" (6-pack)


Semilunar Line

The part of the Fascia that forms the outer edge of the Rectus Abdominis


Linea Alba

The fusion of the Aponeuroses of the right and left Flat Abdominal Muscles


Rectus Abdominis

Origin: Pubic Symphysis, Pubic Crest
Insertion: Xiphoid Process, Costal Cartilages 5-7
Action: Flexes Trunk, Compresses Abdominal Viscera
Nerve: Ventral Rami of 6 Inferior Thoracic Nerves
Blood Supply: Superior and Inferior Epigastric Arteries


Superior Epigastric Vessels

On the Superior half of the Rectus Abdominis Muscle
Essentially Superior to the Umbilicus are the Superior Epigastric Vessels


Inferior Epigastric Vessels

On the Inferior half of the Rectus Abdominis Muscle
Essentially Inferior to the Umbilicus are the Inferior Epigastric Vessels


Pyramidialis Muscles

This muscle is frequently absent
It attaches to the anterior surgace of the Pubis and the Linea Alba and it draws down the Linea Alba



Right, Left, Caudate, Quadrate Lobes
Lies against the anterior surface of the diaphragm
The Falciform Ligament divides it into Right and Left Lobes
Quadrate Lobe lies on Posterior side of the Liver between the Falciform Ligament and the Gallbladder
The Caudate Lobe is on the Posterior side of the Liver and is Superior to the Quadrate Lobe


Falciform Ligament

The Falciform Ligament divides it into Right and Left Lobes


Round Ligament

On Inferior Edge of Falciform
A fibrous cord resulting from the obliteration of the Umbilical Vein. It ascends from the Umbilicus to the UmbilicalNnotch of the Liver, from which it may be traced in its proper fossa on the inferior surface of the liver to the porta



Next to 9th Costal Cartilage
Extends below the Inferior Border of the Liver



Left Upper quadrant
Continuous with the esophagus proximally and the Duodenum distally.
The Liver Partially covers the Anterior Surface of the Stomach
Body of the Stomach is the part that lies between the fundus and the pyloric antrum
The Greater Curvature is on the Lateral Inferior side of the stomach
The Lesser Curvature is on the Medial Superior side of the stomach


Greater Omentum

Great curvature
It's attached to the greater curvature of the stomach


Lesser Omentum (Gastrohepatic/Small Omentum)

Hepatogastric Ligament connects lesser curvature to liver
This is part of the peritoneum that is found in a double layer and goes from the beginning of the duodenum and stomach's lesser curvature to the liver.



The pancreas lies within the bend of the duodenum
It lies across the midline and is positioned against vertebral bodies
In order from the duodenum to the spleen/kidney is Head, Neck, Body, Tail



The Mesocolon anchors the Colon to the back body wall


Teniae Coli

Smooth Longitudinal Muscles of the Colon
Line of Muscle passing through the middle of the colon



Pouches of the colon, produced by adaptation of its length to the taenia coli, or by collection of circular muscle fibers 1 or 2 cm apart
The haustra are make the colon look bubbly/lumpy


Epiploic (Omental) Appendages

Small pouches of the peritoneum filled with fat and situated along the colon, but are absent in the rectum
They run along the Teniae Coli


Central Tendon
Esophogeal Hiatus
Venal Cava Foramen
Aortic Hiatus

Forms the roof of the Abdominal Cavity and the floor of the Thoracic Cavity
The principle muscle of Respiration
The Central Tendon is the aponeurotic center of the diaphragm and the distal attachment of all of it muscular parts
The Esophogeal Hiatus is an opening in the Right Crus where the Esophagus passes through
The Venal Cava Foramen passes through the Central Tendon and is where the Inferior Vena Cava passes through
The Aortic Hiatus passes behind the diaphragm and is where the Aorta passes through



The main artery of the body, supplying oxygenated blood to the circulatory system
It passes over the heart from the left ventricle and runs down in front of the backbone


Inferior Vena Cava

A large vein carrying deoxygenated blood into the heart
Runs alongside the Aorta


Renal Artery and Vein

They are the vessel connections between the Kidney and the Abdominal Aorta/Inferior Vena Cava


Internal Iliac Artery

The internal iliac artery is the smaller terminal branch of the common iliac artery. It supplies the pelvic walls, pelvic viscera, external genitalia, the perineum, buttock and medial part of the thigh


External Iliac Artery

The external iliac artery is the larger of the two terminal branches of the common iliac artery
Run along the iliopsoas muscle. After it enters the thigh under the inguinal ligament, it changes name and continues as the femoral artery


Common Iliac Artery

The Aorta splits into two Common Iliac Ateries


Femoral Artery

The extension of the External Iliac Artery after it passes the Inguinal Ligament
Supplies blood to the lower limb


Small Intestine
Ileocecal Valve

From beginning to end Dudenum, Jejunum, and Ileum
Begins at the end of the Stomach and ends at the beginning of the Large Intestine
Mesentary is a fold of tissue that attaches organs to the body wall and it anchors the small intestines to the back of the abdominal wall. Blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics branch through the mesentery to supply the intestine
Ileocecal Valveis a sphincter muscle valve that separates the small intestine and the large intestine. Its critical function is to limit the reflux of colonic contents into the ileum


Kidney and Adrenal Gland

The Kidneys lies against the Posterior Abdominal Wall
The Adrenal (Suprarenal) Gland acts as a hat on top of the Kidneys



The Renal Pelvis (a small bunch in the middle of the Kidney) goes on to become the Ureter
The muscular duct that carries urine from the kidney to the Urinary Bladder



A membranous sac in humans and other animals, in which urine is collected for excretion.
Its a round structure on the midline


Large Intestine

Also Know as the Colon
The entrance is at the CECUM where it then goes up the ASCENDING COLON and rounds the corner into the TRANSVERSE COLON at the superior end which later rounds another corner into the DESCENDING COLON in time to become the SIGMOID COLON at the end before the Rectum



It's a small strand that shoots off inferiorly from the Cecum



Origin: Iliac Crest, Iliac Fossa, Ala of Sacrum, and Anterior Sacroiliac Ligaments
Insertion: Tendon of Psoas Major, Lesser Trochanter, and Femur
Action: Flexes thigh at hip joint and stabilizes the joint
Nerve: Femoral Nerve (L2,L3)
Blood Supply: Iliac Branches of Iliolumbar Artery


Psoas Major

Origin: Sides of T12-L5 and discs between; Transverse Processes of all Lumbar
Insertion: Lesser Trochanter of Femur
Action: Flexes thigh at hip joint and stabilizes the joint
Nerve: Anterior Rami of Lumbar Nerves (L1, L2, L3)
Blood Supply: Lumbar branches of Iliolumbar Artery


Quadratus Lumborum

Origin: Medial Half of Posterior Iliac Crest and Iliolumbar Ligament
Insertion: Transverse Processes of L1-L4 and Medial half of 12th Rib
Action: Extends the Vertebral Column and also laterally flexes the vertebral column
Nerve: Subcostal Nerve and Ventral Rami of L1-L4
Blood Supply: Lumbar Artery


Lumbar Plexus

Formed within the Psoas Major Muscles, and its branches can be seen as they emerge from the lateral border of this muscle.
Only seen after the removal of the Psoas Major Muscle
Superior to Inferior: Iliohypogastric, Ilioinguinal, Genitofemoral, Lateral Cutaneous, Obturator, Femoral
I, I Get Leftovers On Friday


Genitofemoral Nerve
Genital Branch
Femoral Branch

Pierces Psoas Major
The Genital branch innervates the skin of the anterior scrotum (in males) or the skin over mons pubis and labium majus (in females).
The Femoral branch innervates the skin on the upper anterior thighnital branch innervates the cremasteric muscle


Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of the Thigh

Innervates the anterior and lateral thigh down to the level of the knee


Femoral Nerve

Innervates the muscles: Illiacus, pectineus, sartorius, all the muscles of quadriceps femoris


Obturator Nerve

Innervates the muscles: obturator externus, pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis


Lumbosarcral Nerve

Lumbosacral Trunk leads to Superior and Inferior Gluteal Nerve, Nerve to Opturator Internus, and Sciatic Nerve


Femoral Vein

Femoral Vein spints into 3
Superficial Epigastric Vein splits into 2
Thoracoepigastric Vein leads to
Axillary Vein


Clavicular Notch of Manubrium

The attachment point of the Clavicle to the Manubrium


Anterior Sternoclavicular Ligament

Sternoclavicular Joint Ligament
The ligament attaching Clavicle to Manubrium on the Anterior side.


Costoclavicular Ligament

Ligament from the Clavicle to the cartilage of the 1st Ligament


Articular Disk

Shock Absorber
In the Sternoclavicular Joint cavity.


Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint

Coracoacromial Ligament, Trapezoid Ligament, Conoid Ligament, Acromioclavicular Ligament
From Lateral to Medial- Coracoacromial Ligament, Trapezoid Ligament, Conoid Ligament
Acromioclavicular Ligament is up top


Medacarpophalangeal Joint

The joints between the carpal bones and the 5 Digits


Glenohumeral (GH) Joint

Capsule of GH Joint- Covers and Protects the components of the GH Joint
Glenoid Labrum- Ring around the Glenoid Fossa, which deepens the socket
Glenoid Fossa- The socket where the head of the Humerus is kept
Glenohumoral Ligaments
Subscapularis Ligament- Goes from the Anterior part of the Humerus to the Subscapular Fossa
Transverse Humeral Ligament- Runs just lateral to the Subscapularis ligament and covers the Long Head of the Biceps Brachii
Capsular Ligament- 3 Ligaments covering the Capsule. Superior, Middle, Inferior. Inferior is most injured during dislocation
Elbow Joint
Joint Capsule- Covers the joint deep to all of the ligaments
Ulnar Collateral- Medial side. Anterior, Posterior, and Trasverse. Top, Closer to Olecranon, and Bottom
Radial Collateral- Lateral side. Ligament from Lateral Eipcondyle to Radius and Ulna
Annular Ligament- Runs from Radius to Ulnar over the top of the Radius.