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Flashcards in Practical Exam 1 Deck (69):

External Occipital Protuberance

Bump at the back skull

Page 6


Spinous Process of C7

Vertebra Prominens- Most prominent spinous process in the spinal column.

Page 6


Posterior Superior Iliac Crest

Back of/Top of the hip bones

Page 6


Superior Angle
Inferior Angle

-Acromion is the most superior and most lateral point of the scapula.
-Spine is the top edge of the scapula.
-Superior Angle is the most superior part of the most medial part of the scapula
-Inferior Angle is the most inferior part of the scapula and sticks out the most.

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Cervical Vertebrae

The first six vertebrae- Atlas, Axis, C1-C7
Smaller bodies, large vertebral formina, and short spinous processes with bifurcate tips.

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Thoracic Vertebrae

The middle twelve vertebrae- T1-T12
Middle sized body and spinous processes and angled transverse processes.

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Lumbar Vertebrae

The last five vertebrae that aren't fused- L1-L5
Larger bodies, broad spinous processes, and straight transverse processes.

Page 7


Iliac Crest

Top of the hip bones felt on the back

Page 6


Mastoid Process

Inferior and lateral edge of the skull near the mandible (Jaw)

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Sacral Foramina
Sacral Hiatus

-Sacral Foramina are the holes on either side of the middle of the fused vertebrae
-Sacral Hiatus is the opening into the vertebral canal on the midline sacrum right above the coccyx

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Superior Part
Middle Part
Inferior Part
Blood Supply

-Superior Part: Attaches to lateral third of clavicle and elevates scapula
-Middle Part: Attaches to acromion and spine and retracts scapula
-Inferior Part: Attaches near the medial end of the spine of the scapula and depresses the scapula
-Nerve: Accessory Nerve
-Blood Supply: Transverse Cervical Artery

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Latissimus Dorsi

Origin: T7-T12, Thoracolumbar Fascia, and the Iliac Crest
Insertion: Ribs 9-12 and Sulcus of the Humerus
Nerve: Thoracodorsal Nerve
Blood Supply: Thoracodorsal Artery

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Rhomboid Major

Origin: T2-T5
Insertion: Medial border of the scapula
Nerve: Dorsal Scapular Nerve
Blood Supply: Dorsal Scapular Artery/Vein

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Rhomboid Minor

Origin: C7-T1
Insertion: Medial border of the scapula
Nerve: Dorsal Scapular Nerve
Blood Supply: Dorsal Scapular Artery/Vein

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Triangle of Auscultation

Bordered by the Trapezius, Latissimus Dorsi, and the rhomboid major/scapula.
Good for listening to organs like the lungs

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Serratus Posterior Superior

Origin: Nuchal Ligament and C7-T3
Insertion: Superior borders of ribs 2-5

No picture- Very thin muscle under the Rhomboids


Serratus Posterior Inferior

Origin: T11-L2
Insertion: Inferior borders of ribs 9-12

No picture- Very thin muscle under the Latissimus Dorsi


Splenius Capitus

Origin: Nuchal Ligament, C7-T6
Insertion: Mastoid Process and Superior Nuchal Line

Page 13


Erector Spinae

Iliocostalis: Most lateral. From Ilium to superior attachments on ribs.
Longissimus: Middle Muscle. From Sacrum to transverse processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae and mastoid process.
Spinalis: Most medial. From spinous processes to spinous process more superior.

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Semispinalis Capitis

Deep to Splenius Capitis. Greater occipital Nerve goes through it.
Origin: Transverse processes of the upper thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: Between superior and inferior nuchal line.

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Suboccipital Triangle

Obliquus Capitus Superior-Lateral- From Transverse process of atlas to between superior and inferior nuchal lines
Obliquus Capitis inferior-Bottom- From Spinous of C2 to Transverse of C1
Rectus Capitis Posterior Major- Medial Boundary- From Spinous of C2 to Inferior nuchal line.
Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor- Superior to Major- From Tubercle of C1 to Inferior nuchal line.
The Greater Occipital Nerve and the Vertebral Artery supply all of these muscles with innervation and blood. Suboccipital nerve and vertebral artery can be found in the Triangle. Greater Occipital passes over.

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Ligamentum Flavium

"Yellow Ligament"- Connect Lamina of adjacent vertebrae to each other.


Epidural Space

Contains fat and veins. Between bones and Dural Sac

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Dura Mater

Outermost protective covering for the spinal cord

Page 18


Arachnoid Mater

The protective layer immediately deep to the Dura Mater

Page 18


Subarchnoid Space

The space between the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater. Contains cerebrospinal fluid

Page 18


Pia Mater

The final, very thin protective layer on the spinal cord and can't be dissected away.

Page 18


Lumbar Enlargement

Widened area of spinal cord that gives attachment to nerves for lower limbs. Located at lower Thoracic.


Conus Medullaris

The end of the spinal cord located between vertebral levels L1 and L2- Shaped like a cone

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Cauda Equina

"Horse Tail"- Collection of anterior and posterior roots in the lower vertebral column


Filum Terminal

A delicate filament of pia mater that arises from the tip of the conus medullaris. It ends at vertebral level S2, where it becomes encircled by the lower end of the epidural sac. It's essentially the final continuation of the spinal column.

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Dural Sac

The dura mater as a whole.


Denticulate Ligaments

The pia mater forms two of these on each side of the spinal cord. Each has 21 teeth that attach to the inner surface of the dura mater and anchors the spinal cord.


Dorsal Root (Posterior Root)

On posterior side of denticulate ligament- Joins with the Ventral Root to form a spinal nerve

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Ventral Root (Anterior Root)

On anterior side of denticulate ligament- Joins with the Dorsal Root to form a spinal nerve

Page 18


Dorsal Root Ganglia (Spinal Ganglia)

A cluster of nerve cell bodies in a posterior root of a spinal nerve


Anterior Ramus

The anterior division of the spinal nerve. These rami deal with motor abilities


Posterior Ramus

Supplies deep back postural muscles- The posterior division of the spinal nerve. These rami deal with sensory abilities.


Suprascapular Notch

Notch on the anterior side of the scapula in the middle.

Page 24


Deltoid Tuberosity

The attachment point for the deltoid that's halfway down on the humerus.


Supraglenoid Tubercle

The origin of the long head of the biceps brachii attaches at the top of the scapula where the humerus is.

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Infraglenoid Tubercle

It's the origin of the long head of the triceps on the scapula right below the connection between the humerus and scapula.

Page 24


Lessor Tubercle

Insertion of the subscapularis on the head of the anterior part of humerus


Lateral Border of Scapula

The lateral side of the scapula


Coracoid Process

The part on the spine of the scapula that is under the clavicle and sticks out anteriorly.


Deltoid Muscle

Origin: Spine of scapula, Acromion of the scapula, and the lateral one-third of the clavicle.
Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus.
Action: Abducts the humerus
Nerve: Axillary Nerve (out of quadrangular space)
Blood Supply: Posterior circumflex artery (out of quadrangular space)

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Teres Minor

Origin: Lateral border of the scapula.
Insertion: Inferior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus.
Action: Laterally rotates the humerus
Nerve: Axillary Nerve

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Teres Major

Origin: Inferior angle of the scapula
Insertion: Medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
Action: Adducts and medially rotates the humerus

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Long Head of Triceps Brachii

It passes anterior to the teres minor muscle
It passes posterior to the teres major muscle
It passes medial to the axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery

Page 25


Quadrangular Space

Borders of the quadrangular space are the inferior border of the teres minor muscles (Superior Border), Surgical neck of the humerus (Lateral Border), lateral border of the long head of the triceps brachii muscle (Medial Border), and superior border of the teres major muscle (Inferior Border)

Page 25


Rotator Cuff

Supraspinatus (on top of spine), Infraspinatus (just below spine), Teres Minor (just deep and inferior to Infraspinatus), Subscapularis (anterior side of scapula)

Page 25


Suspernsory Ligaments

Between mammary glands and connects the pectoral fascia to the overlaying skin.

Page 27



The small circular area, in particular the ring of pigmented skin surrounding a nipple.

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The small projection in which the mammary ducts of female mammals terminate and from which milk can be secreted

Page 27


Lactiferous Ducts

Any of 15 to 20 ducts that drain the lobes of the mammary gland. Each opens in a slight depression in the tip of the nipple.

Page 27


Lactiferous Sinus

Dilation of the lactiferous duct just before it enters the nipple. This dilation stores a droplet of milk that is expressed by compression as the infant begins to suckle; this is thought to encourage continual suckling while the let-down reflex ensues.

Page 27


Retromammary Space

Behind the boob. A layer of loose connective tissue separating the breast from the deep fascia, providing some degree of movement over underlying surfaces

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Platysma Muscle

A muscle of facial expression that extends inferior to the clavicle into superficial fascia of the superior thorax


Pectoralis Major

Origin: Along clavicle, sternum, and bottom cartilage of ribs. 2 Heads, clavicular and sternocostal heads
Insertion: Humerus

Page 29


Pectoralis Minor

Origin: Ribs 3-5 near their costal cartilages.
Insertion: Coracoid process of the scapula.

Page 29


Subclavius Muscle

Deep to the pectoralis major.
Origin: First Rib
Insertion: Clavicle
Action: Depresses the clavicle

Page 29


Deltopectoral Triangle

Located between the superior border of the clavicular head of the pectoralis major muscle and the inferior border of the deltoid muscle near the clavicle. At the top of the Deltopectoral groove.

Page 29


Deltopectoral Groove

Deltopectoral triangle narrows into this. It's in between the pectoralis major and the deltoid.

Page 29


Cephalic Vein

It follows the deltopectoral groove. From the arm to the deltopectoral triangle where the vein passes deeply to enter the axilla.

Page 29


Clavipectoral Fascia

The sheet of membrane filling in the space between clavicle and pectoralis minor, limited laterally by the coracoid process and passing medially to fuse with the external intercostal membrane of the upper two spaces.

Page 29


Medial Pectoral Nerve

Pierces the pectoralis minor muscle and then enters the deep surface of the pectoralis major muscle, innervating both.


Lateral Pectoral Nerve

Bypasses the pectoralis minor. Passes through the costocoracoid membrane


Lateral Thoracic Artery

Along the lateral border of the pectoralis minor.

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Thoracoacrominal Artery

An artery that has four separate branches.
Pectoral Branch: descends between pectoralis major and pectoralis minor and supplies both. Largest branch
Deltoid branch: courses laterally in the deltopectoral groove between the deltoid and pectoralis major. Accompanies Cephalic vein
Acromial Branch: Superior to the coracoid process and toward the acromion. May arise from deltoid branch.
Clavicular Branch: courses superiorly and medially to supply the subclavius muscle and the sternoclavicular joint.

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