Practical Exam 4- Legs, Neck, and Others Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Practical Exam 4- Legs, Neck, and Others > Flashcards

Flashcards in Practical Exam 4- Legs, Neck, and Others Deck (214):
1

Saphenous Opening (Hiatus)

About 4 cm Inferior to the Inguinal Ligament
Great Saphenous passes deeply through the opening and drains into the femoral vein.

2

Lymph Nodes
Horizontal Group- Inguinal Ligament
Vertical Group- Proximal Great Saphenous

They are both located in the proximal thigh
The Horizontal Group is about 2 cm below the Inguinal Ligament. Almost run parallel to it
The Vertical Group is around the proximal end of the Great Saphenous Vein and essentially runs parallel to that

3

Great Saphenous Vein

Runs along the Anterior/Lateral Side of the Thigh and Leg
From Inferior to Superior, the veins that drain into the Great Saphenous are Dorsal Venous Arch of the the Foot, Different Perforating and Superficial Veins (External Pudendal, Epigastric, and Circumflex Iliac), and then the Accessory Saphenous Vein
Ends after going through the Saphenous Hiatus around the Inguinal Ligament when it becomes the Femoral Vein

4

Perforating Veins of Saphenous

Connect the Great Saphenous Vein to the Deep Venous System

5

Accessory Saphenous Vein

The Median Cubital of the Leg
Connects the Small Saphenous to the Great Saphenous
Drains the Superficial Fascia and skin of the Medial Side of the Thigh
May be connected very proximally to the Great Saphenous

6

Superficial External Pudental Artery

Essentially courses from the Groin area laterally to the Saphenous Hiatus
Most Inferior and Medial Branch
Artery Follows the same path as the Vein

7

Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery

Essentially courses from the hip Medially to the Saphenous Hiatus while following the Inguinal Ligament
Only Lateral Vein
Artery follows the same path as the Vein

8

Saphenous Nerve

Accompanies Great Saphenous Vein in LEG
A branch of Femoral Nerve that pierces the Deep Fascia on the Medial Side of the knee

9

Cutaneous Branch of Obturator Nerve

Innervates skin of the Medial Thigh

10

Anterior Cutaneous Branches of Femoral Nerve
and Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve

Innervates the skin of the Anterior Thigh
These branches enter the Superficial Fascia Lateral to the Great Saphenous Vein

Passes deep to the lateral end of the Inguinal Ligament and innervates the skin of the Lateral Thigh

11

Superficial Fibular Nerve

Innervates Dorsum of Foot Toes

12

Fascia Lata

Deep Fascia in the thigh
The Lateral Portion is particularly strong and is called the Iliotibial Tract

13

Iliotibial Tract

Thick portion of the Fascia Lata running on the Lateral side of the Thigh running from the Hip to Knee.

14

Crural Fascia

The deep fascia of the Leg

15

Pedal Fascia

The Deep Fascia of the Foot

16

Flexor Retinaculum of the Foot

The portion of the Retinaculum on the Posterior and Medial side connecting the Calcaneus

17

Superior Extensor Retinaculum

Band of Retinaculum running along the Anterior Side about where ankle high socks would sit

18

Inferior Extensor Retinaculum

Y Shaped
This portion of the Extensor Retinaculum is more on the top of the Foot

19

Extensor Hallucis Brevis and Extensor Digitorum Brevis

Origin: Superolateral Surface of Calcaneus, Lateral Talocalcaneal Ligament, and Cruciate Crural Ligament
Insertion: Dorsal Surface of base of Proximal Phalanx of Great Toe and Lateral sides of tendons of Extensor Digitorum Longus to Digits 2-4
Action: Aids the Extensor Digitorum Longus in Extending 4 Medial Digits
Nerve: Deep Fibular Nerve
Blood Supply: Dorsalis Pedis, Lateral Tarsal, Arcuate, and Fibular Nerves

20

Extensor Digitorum Longus

Origin: Lateral Condyle of Fibula, Medial Fibular Shaft surface, upper part of Interosseus Membrane
Insertion: Dorsum of Middle and Distal Phalanges of Digits 2-5
Action: Extend toes 2-5 and Dorsiflexes Ankle
Nerve: Deep Peroneal Nerve
Blood Supply: Anterior Tibial Artery

21

Tibialis Anterior

Origin: Lateral Condyle of Tibia, Lateral Surface of Tibial Shaft, Interosseus Membrane, and Deep surface of Fascia Cruris
Insertion: Medial and Plantar surfaces of the Base of 1st Metatarsal and Cuneiform
Action: Dorsiflexion of Ankle and Invertor of Foot
Nerve: Deep Peroneal Nerve
Blood Supply: Anterior Tibial Artery

22

Extensor Hallicus Longus

Origin: Anterior Surface of Fibula and Interosseus Membrane
Insertion: Base and Dorsal surface of Distal Phalanx of Great Toe
Action: Extends Great Toe and Dorsiflexes Ankle
Nerve: Deep Peroneal Nerve
Blood Supply: Anterior Tibial Artery

23

Fibularis Tertius

Origin: Medial Fibular Shaft surface and Anterior Intermuscular Septum
Insertion: Dorsal Surface of base of 5th Metatarsal
Action: Dorsiflex, Evert, and Abduct the Foot
Nerve: Deep Peroneal Nerve
Blood Supply: Anterior Tibial Artery

24

Femoral Triangle

Pulse of Femoral Artery can be palate do here
Superior- Inguinal Ligament
Lateral- Sartorius Muscle
Medial- Adductor Longus Muscle
In the Floor- Iliopsoas and Pectineus Muscle
Contents- Femoral Nerve, Femoral Artery, Femoral Vein, and Femoral Sheath- "VAN" from Medial to Lateral

25

Femoral Sheath
Lateral Compartment
Intermediate Compartment
Medial Compartment (For Expansion)

Lateral Compartment contains the Femoral Artery
Intermediate Compartment Contains the Femoral Vein
Medial Compartment contains the lymphatic system (Vertical)

The Femoral sheath is also called the Femoral Canal and the proximal opening in the Abdomen is called the Femoral Ring

26

Deep Artery of the Thigh

Courses parallel to the Femoral Artery but is Posterior to the Adductor Longus Muscle
Supplies the Medial and Posterior Compartments on the Thigh

27

Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery

Passes Deep to Rectus Femoris
Usually arises from the Deep Artery of the Thigh very close the Femoral Artery, but sometimes arises directly from Femoral Artery
Passes Laterally, Deep to the Superior end of the Rectus Femoris Muscle
Supplies the Muscles and Soft Tissues of the Lateral part of the Thigh in 3 branches: Ascending Branch, Transverse Branch, and Descending Branch

28

Medial Circumflex Femoral Artery

Typically arises from the deep artery of the thigh close to the Femoral Artery
Passes Posteriorly between the Pectineus and Iliopsoas muscles
Important blood supply to the Head and Neck of the Femur

29

Pectineus

Origin: Superior Ramus of Pubis
Insertion: Pectineal line of Femur
Action: Adducts and Flexes Thigh; Assists with Medial Rotation
Nerve: Femoral Nerve
Blood Supply: Medial Circumflex Femoral Artery and Obturator Artery

30

Iliopsoas
Iliacus
Psoas Major

Origin: Iliac Crest, Iliac Fossa, Ala of Sacrum, and Anterior Sacroiliac Ligaments
Insertion: Tendon of Psoas Major, Lesser Trochanter, and Femur
Action: Flexes thigh at hip joint and stabilizes the joint
Nerve: Femoral Nerve (L2,L3)
Blood Supply: Iliac Branches of Iliolumbar Artery

Origin: Sides of T12-L1 and discs
Insertion: Pectineal Line, Iliopectineal Eminence via Iliopectineal Arch
Action: Flexes thigh at hip joint and stabilizes the joint
Nerve: Anterior Rami of Lumbar Nerves (L1, L2)
Blood Supply: Lumbar branches of Iliolumbar Artery

31

Sartorius

Origin: Anterior Superior Iliac Spine and notch below it
Insertion: Superior part of Medial surface of Tibia
Action: Abducts, Laterally Rotates, and Flexes thigh; Flexes knee
Nerve: Femoral Nerve
Blood Supply: Profunda Femoris and Lateral Circumflex Femoral Arteries

32

Rectus Femoris

Origin: Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine and Ilium Superior to Acetabulum
Insertion: Base of Patella and Tibial Tuberosity via patellar Ligament
Action: Extends leg at knee and flexes thigh at hip
Nerve: Femoral Nerve
Blood Supply: Profunda Femoris and Lateral Circumflex Femoral Arteries

33

Vastus Lateralis

Origin: Greater Trochanter, Lateral Lip of Linea Aspera of Femur
Insertion: Base of Patella and to Tibial Tuberosity via Patellar Ligament
Action: Extends leg at Knee
Nerve: Femoral Nerve
Blood Supply: Lateral Circumflex Femoral and Profunda Femoris Arteries

34

Vastus Medialis

Origin: Intertrochanteric Line, Medial lip of Linea Aspera of Femur
Insertion: Base of Patella and to Tibial Tuberosity via Patellar Ligament
Action: Extends leg at Knee
Nerve: Femoral Nerve
Blood Supply: Femoral and Profunda Femoris Arteries

35

Vastus Intermedius

Origin: Anterior and Lateral surfaces of body of Femur
Insertion: Base of Patella and to Tibial Tuberosity via Patellar Ligament
Action: Extends Leg at Knee
Nerve: Femoral Nerve
Blood Supply: Lateral Circumflex Femoral and and Profunda Femoris Arteries

36

Quadriceps Femoris Tendon

The tendons of the four Quadriceps (Vastus Lateralis, Medialis, and Intermedius and Quadriceps Femoris) united and is attached to the Patella

37

Patellar Tendon

Attaches the Patella to the Tibial Tuberosity, so the Inferior Attachment of the Quadriceps Tendon and Muscles is ultimately on the Tibial Tuberosity

38

Gracilis

Origin: Body and Inferior Ramus of Pubis
Insertion: Superior Part of Medial Surface of Tibia
Action: Adducts thigh at hips and stabilizes joint, acts with Psoas Major
Nerve: Obturator Nerve
Blood Supply: Profunda Femoris Artery, Medial Circumflex Femoral Artery

39

Adductor Longus

Origin: Body of Pubis Inferior to Pubic Crest
Insertion: Middle Third of Linea Aspera of Femur
Action: Adducts thigh at hip
Nerve: Obturator Nerve (Anterior Division)
Blood Supply: Profunda Femoris and Medial Circumflex Femoral Arteries

40

Adductor Brevis

Origin: Body and Inferior Pubic Ramus
Insertion: Pectineal Line and Proximal Part of Linea Aspera of Femur
Action: Adducts thigh at Hip, Weak Hip Flexor
Nerve: Obturator Nerve
Blood Supply: Profunda Femoris, Medial Circumflex Femoral, and Obturator Arteries

41

Adductor Magnus

Origin: Inferior Pubic Ramus, Ramus of Ischium (Hamstring part is the Ischial Tuberosity)
Insertion: Gluteal Tuberostiy, Linea Aspera, Medial Supracondylar Line (Hamstring Part is the Adductor Tubercle of Femur)
Action: Adductor Part: Adducts and Flexes Thigh; Hamstring Part: Extends Thigh
Nerve: Adductor Part: Obturator Nerve; Hamstring Part: Sciatic Nerve (Tibial Division)
Blood Supply: Femoral, Profunda Femoris, and Obturator Arteries

42

Obturator Nerve

Innervates Medial Compartment of the Thigh
Originates in the Lumbar Plexus, runs through the Pelvis and and Anterior branch crosses the anterior surface of Adductor Brevis while a Posterior branch crosses the posterior side

43

Anterior and Posterior Branch of Obturator Nerve

Anterior is in front of Adductor Brevis
Posterior is behind Adductor Brevis

44

Small Saphenous Vein

Runs along the Posterior side of the Lower Limb
Seems to appear around the area of the Popliteal Fossa where it pierces the deep fascia and Drains into the Popliteal Vein

45

Sural Nerve

Courses with Small Saphenous
Pierces the Deep Fascia halfway down the Posterior aspect of the Leg
Innervates the skin of the Lateral aspect of the Ankle and Foot

46

Cluneal Nerves

Innervates the skin of the Gluteal Region
Superior Cluneal Nerves come from Posterior Rami of L1-L3 and innervate the Upper Buttock
Middle Cluneal Nerves come from Posterior Rami of S1-S3 and innervate the Middle Buttock
Inferior Cluneal Nerves come from Posterior Cutaneous Nerve of the Thigh and wrap around the Inferior border of the Gluteus innervate get the Lower Buttock

47

Gluteus Maximus

Origin: Ilium Posterior to Posterior Gluteal Line, Dorsal Surface of Sacrum/Coccyx, Sacrotuberous Ligament
Insertion: Iliotibial Tract and Tuberosity of Femur
Action: Extends Flexed Thigh, Assists in Lateral Rotation, and Abducts Thigh
Nerve: Inferior Gluteal Nerve
Blood Supply: Inferior Gluteal Arteries

48

Inferior Gluteal Artery and Vein

Located near the center of the muscle
Gluteus Maximus also receives blood from the Superior Gluteal Artery, but Inferior only supplies Maximus

49

Inferior Gluteal Nerve

Supplies Gluteus Maximus Only

50

Gluteus Medius

Origin: Lateral surface of Ilium
Insertion: Lateral surface of Greater Trochanter of Femur
Action: Abducts/medially rotates thigh at hips and steadies pelvis on leg with opposite leg is raised
Nerve: Superior Gluteal Nerve
Blood Supply: Superior Gluteal Artery

51

Piriformis

Origin: Anterior Surface of Sacral Segments 2-4, Sacrotuberous Ligament
Insertion: Superior Border of Greater Trochanter of Femur
Action: Laterally rotates extended thigh, Abducts flexed thigh at hip
Nerve: Ventral Rami of L5, S1, S2
Blood Supply: Superior and Inferior Gluteal Arteries, Internal Pudendal Artery

52

Superior Gluteal Artery, Vein, and Nerve

Superior to Piriformis
Exit the Pelvic Cavity and Enter the Gluteal Region by passing above the Superior border of the Piriformis Muscle

53

Sciatic Nerve

Supplies Posterior Thigh and Leg
The Largest Nerve in the Body
Divides into the Tibial Division (Medial Popliteal Nerve) and the Common Fibular Division (Lateral Popliteal Nerve)

54

Inferior and Superior Gemellis

Superior attaches the the Ischial Spine superior to the Obturator Internus Muscle and Inferior attaches to the Ischial Tuberosity inferior to the Obturator Internus Muscle
Other attachment is with the Obturator Internus Tendon to the Greater Trochanter of the Femur
Lateral Rotators of the Thigh

55

Obturator Internus Muscle

Medial attachment is on the inner surface of the margin of the Obturator Foramen and the Inner Surface of the Obturator Membrane
Exits the Lesser Pelvis by passing through the Lesser Sciatic Foramen
Lateral attachment is on the medial side of the Greater Trochanter of the Femur and is a Lateral Rotator

56

Nerve to Obturator Internus

Supplies the Obturator Internus

57

Quadratus Femoris

Inferior to Inferior Gamellus, Ishium to Intertrochanteric Crest (Lateral Rotator)
Origin: Lateral Margin of Ischial Tuberosity
Insertion: Quadrate Tubercle on Intertrochanteric Crest of Femur
Action: Laterally Rotates Thigh at Hip
Nerve: Nerve to Quadratus Femoris
Blood Supply: Medial Circumflex Femoral Artery

58

Tensor Fascia Latae

Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) to IT Band (Adductor and Medial Rotator of Thigh)
Origin: Anterior Superior Iliac Spine and Anterior part of Iliac Crest
Insertion: Iliotibial Tract
Action: Abducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh at hip. Helps keep knee extended
Nerve: Superior Gluteal Nerve
Blood Supply: Ascending branch of Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery

59

Pes Anserinus

Common Insertion of Semitendinosis, Sartorius, and Gracilis
Located at the proximal end of the Tibia

60

Biceps Femoris Long and Short Head

Origin: Long Head: Ischial Tuberosity; Short Head: Linea Aspera and Lateral Supracondylar Line of Femur
Insertion: Lateral Side of Head of Fibula
Action: Flexes and Laterally Rotates Leg, Extends thigh at High
Nerve: Sciatic Nerve (Long=Tibial Division) (Short=Common Fibular Division)
Blood Supply: Perforating Branches of Profunda Femoris, Inferior Gluteal, and Medial Circumflex Femoral Arteries

61

Gastrocnemius

Origin: Medial head- Posterior Nonarticular surface of Medial Femoral Condyle; Lateral Head- Lateral Surface of Femoral Lateral Condyle
Insertion: The Deep Tendon of Soleus which is the formation of the Achilles Tendon; Inserts on the Middle Third of Posterior Calcaneal Surface
Action: Powerful Plantar Flexor of Ankle
Nerve: Tibial Nerve
Blood Supply: A Sural Branch of the Popliteal Artery

62

Soleus

Origin: Posterior Aspect of Fibular Head, Upper quarter of Posterior Surface of Fibular, Middle Third of Medial Border of Tibial Shaft, and Posterior Surface of a Tendinous Arch Spanning the two sites of Bone Origin
Insertion: Unites with Gastrocnemius Aponeurosis to form the Achilles Tendon and inserting on posterior Calcaneus Surface
Action: Powerful plantar Flexor of Ankle
Nerve: Posterior Tibial, Peroneal, and Sural Arteries
Blood Supply:

63

Plantaris

Origin: Inferior Aspect of Lateral Supracondylar Line of Distal Femur
Insertion: Middle Third of Posterior Calcaneal Surface medial to Achilles Tendon
Action: Tibial Nerve
Nerve: Sural Arteries
Blood Supply:

64

Semitendonosis

Origin: Ischial Tuberosity
Insertion: Superior Part of of Medial Surface of Tibia
Action: Flexes Knee, Extends Thigh
Nerve: Sciatic Nerve (Tibial Division)
Blood Supply: Perforating branch of Profunda Femoris and Medial Circumflex Femoral Arteries

65

Semimembranosus

Origin: Ischial Tuberostiy
Insertion: Posterior part of Medial Condyle of Tibia
Action: Flexes Leg, Extends Thigh
Nerve: Sciatic Nerve (Tibial Division)
Blood Supply: Perforating branch of Profunda Femoris and Medial Circumflex Femoral Arteries

66

Popliteal Artery and Vein

Located in the Popliteal Fossa (Knee Pit)
Located deep to the Tibial Nerve
Enclosed by a connective tissue sheath

67

Tibial Nerve

Exit the Popliteal Fossa by passing deep to the Tendinous Arch of the Soleus Muscle
It is the Medial Split from the Sciatic Nerve
Passes deep to the Plantaris and Gastrocnemius muscles at the Inferior Border of the Popliteal Fossa

68

Common Fibular Nerve

The Most Frequently Injured Nerve in the Body- Injury causes impairment of Eversion, Dorsifelxion of the Foot, and Extension of the Toes (Foot Drop)
The Lateral Portion of the Sciatic Nerve split
It Parallels the Biceps Femoris Tendon and passes superficial to the Lateral Head of the Gastrocnemius Muscle and Plantaris Muscle
Splits into a Deep Fibular Nerve and Superficial Fibular Nerve

69

Genticular Arteries: Superior (Proximal to Origin of Gastrocnemius) and Inferior (Distal to Attachment of Gastrocnemius)

The Superior ones are located deep in the Politeal Fossa, proximal to the attachments of the Gastrocnemius muscle
The Inferior ones pass deep (distal) to the Superior Attachments of the Gastrocnemius muscle
They are both branches of the Popliteal Artery

70

Anterior Tibial Artery

This artery runs along the same side as the Deep Fibular Nerve
It passes Posteriorly over the Superior border of the Interosseus Membrane

71

Posterior Tibial Artery

Runs along the side of the Tibial Nerve after exiting the Popliteal Fossa by passing deep to the Tendinous Arch of the Soleus Muscle

72

Fibular Artery

Branches off of the Posterior Tibular Artery and runs more Laterally posterior to the Fibula
Courses distally between the Tibial Posterior Muscle and the Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle
Supplies blood to the Lateral Compartment of the Leg and Lateral side of the Posterior Compartment of the Leg by means of Several Small Branches

73

Popliteus

Origin: Anterior Part of the Popliteal Groove on Lateral Surface of Lateral Femoral Condyle
Insertion: Posterior Surface of Tibia in a fan-like fashion, just Superior to the Popliteal Line
Action: Rotates Knee Medially and Flexes Leg on the Thigh
Nerve: Tibial Nerve
Blood Supply: Medial Inferior Genicular Branch of Popliteal Artery and Muscular Branch ofPosterior Tibial Artery

74

Flexor Digitorum Longus

Origin: Posterior Surface of Tibia Distal to Politeal Line
Insertion: Plantar Surface of bases of 2-5 distal phalanges
Action: Flexes toes 2-5 and also helps in plantar Flexion of ankle
Nerve: Tibial Nerve
Blood Supply: Muscular branch of Posterior Tibial Artery

75

Flexor Hallucis Longus

Origin: Inferior 2/3 of Posterior Surface of Fibula and Lower part of Interosseus Membrane
Insertion: Plantar Surface of base of Distal Phalanx of Great Toe
Action: Flexes Great Toe, Helps Supinate Ankle, and is a very weak Plantar Flexor of Ankle
Nerve: Tibial Nerve
Blood Supply: Muscular Branch of Peroneal and Posterior Tibial Artery

76

Tibialis Posterior

Origin: Posterior Tibia, Interosseus Membrane, and Proximal half of Posterior Fibula
Insertion: Tuberosity of Navicular Bone, All Cuneiforms, Cuboid, and bases of Metatarsals 2-4
Action: Plantarflexes Foot at Ankle and Inverts Foot
Nerve: Tibial Nerve
Blood Supply: Fibial Artery

77

Platysma

Covers the Lower Part of the Posterior Triangle
Passes superficial to the Clavicle and attaches to the Superficial Fascia of the Deltoid and Pectoral Regions
Attached to the Mandible, Skin of the Cheek, Angle of the Mouth, and Orbicularis Oris Mucle
Innervated by the Cervical Branch of the Facal Nerve (CN VII)

78

Posterior Triangle

Anterior Border- The Posterior Border of the Sternocleidomastoid
Posterior- Superior Border of the Trapezius
Inferior- Middle third of the Clavicle
Superficial (Roof)- Investing Layer of the Deep Cervical Fascia
Deep (Floor)- Muscles of the Neck Covered by Prevertebral Fascia

79

External Jugular Vein

The vein in the Superficial Fascia deep to the Platysma Muscle
Begins posterior to the Angle of the Mandible and crosses the Superficial surface of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle
Drains into the Subclavian Vein

80

Retromandibular Vein (Posterior Branch of External Jugular Vein)

Runs beneath the Parotid Gland and then drains into the External Jugular Vein at the same point as the Posterior Auricular Vein
Runs right behind the Jaw

81

Posterior Auriclular Vein

Runs posterior to the Ear and then drains into the External Jugular Vein at the same point as the Retromandibular Gland
Runs behind the ear

82

Anterior Jugular Vein

In the Superficial Fascia and near the Anterior Midline
Begins near the Hyoid Bone and courses inferiorly near the midline to the Suprasternal Region
Passes laterally deep to the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle to join the External Jugular Vein in the Root of the Neck

83

Communicating Vein

Along the Anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle
Connects the Common Facial Vein with the Anterior Jugular Vein

84

Sternocleidomastoid Muscle

Originates on the Sternum and Clavicle
Inserts on the Mastoid Process
Flexes Neck, Raises Sternum, and Laterally Rotates Head

85

Transverse Cervical Nerve

Passes transversely across the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle and Neck
Supplies the skin of the Anterior Triangle of the Neck

86

Greater Auricular Nerve

Crosses the superficial surface of the sternocleidomastoid muscle parallel to the External Jugular Vein
Supplies the skin of the lower part of the ear, the skin over the Parotid Gland, and an area of skin extending from the angle of the mandible to the Mastoid Process

87

Lesser Occipital Nerve

Parallels the Posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle as it passes superiorly
Supplies the part of the Scalp that is immediately behind the ear

88

Supraclavicular Nerve

Passes Inferiorly to innervate the skin of the Shoulder
Has Medial, Intermediate, and Lateral Branches

89

Spinal Accessory Nerve (XI)

Innervates Sternocleidomastroid Muscle
Crosses the Posterior Cervical Triangle deep to the investing layer of Deep Cervical Fascia
Courses slightly superior to the midpoint of the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle to the superior border of the Trapezius Muscle

90

Nerve Point

Also known as Erb's point
A point on the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle where the 4 Superficial branches of the Cervical Plexus (Greater Auricular, Lesser Occipital, Transverse Cervical, and Supraclavicular) emerge from behind the muscle

91

Muscular Triangle

Contents are the Infrahyoid Muscles, Thyroid Gland, and Parathyroid Glands
Superolateral Border- Superior Belly of the Omohyoid Muscle
Inferolateral Border- Anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle
Medial Border- Median Plane of the Neck

92

Sternohyoid Muscle

Near the midline of the neck
Attaches inferiorly to the Sternum and superiorly to the body of the Hyoid
Depresses the Hyoid Bone

93

Omohyoid Muscle (Superior Belly)

Attaches superiorly to the Inferior border of the Hyoid Bone and Inferiorly to the Superior border of the Scapula near the Suprascapular Notch
Depresses the Hyoid Bone

94

Sternothyroid

Attaches Inferiorly to the Sternum and Superiorly to the Oblique Line of the Thyroid Cartilage
Depresses the Larynx

95

Thyrohyoid

Attaches Inferiorly to the Oblique Line of the Thyroid Cartilage and Superiorly to the Hyoid Bone
Elevates the Larynx

96

Thyroid Gland

Right and Left Lobes
Located at vertebral levels C5-T1
Laterally the Thyroid Gland is in contact with the Carotid Sheath
The Right and Left lobes of the Thyroid Gland are connected by the Isthmus

97

Laryngeal Prominence, Crocoid Cartilage, and Cricothyroid Membrane

Laryngeal Prominence of Thyroid Cartilage (Adam's Apple) is connected to the Hyoid Bone superiorly with Thyrohyoid Membrane and then to the Cricoid Cartilage inferiorly with the Cricothyroid Membrane
The Cricoid Cartilage lies directly superior to the 1st Tracheal Ring

98

Submandibular Triangle

Contents are the Submandibular Gland, Facial Artery, Facial Vein, Stylohyoid Muscle, Part of the Hypoglossal Nerve, and Lymph Nodes
Superior- Inferior Border (base) of the Mandible
Anteroinferior- Anterior Belly of the Digastric Muscle
Posteroinferior- Posterior Belly of the Digastric Muscle
Superficial (Roof)- Investing layer of Deep Cervical Fascia
Deep (Floor)- Mylohyoid and Hypoglossus Muscles

99

Submandibular Gland

A portion of the gland extends deep to the posterior border of Mylohyoid Muscle
The Facial Vein passes Superficial to the Submandibular Gland and the Facial Artery courses deep to it

100

Facial Artery and Vein

The Facial Vein should be posterior to the Facial Artery
Both of them run across the Cheek
Vein drains into Internal Jugular Vein
Artery Receives blood from the External Carotid Branch

101

Digastric

Anterior and Posterior Bellies
Anterior Belly attaches to the Digastric Fossa of the Mandible and is innervated by the Mylohyoid Nerve
Posterior Belly attaches to the Mastoid Process of the Termporal Bone and is innervated by the Facial Nerve.
Bellies attach to each other by an Intermediate Tendon and then attach to the Greater Horn of the Hyoid Bone.
Elevates the Hyoid Bone and Depresses the Mandible

102

Stylohyoid Muscle

Goes from Styloid Process to Hyloid Bone
Innervated by Facial Nerve
Functions to draw the Hyoid bone Backwards and Elevate the Tongue

103

Hypoglossal Nerve

Passes Deep to Posterior Digastric
Enters the Submandibular Triangle by passing deep to the Posterior Belly of the Digastric Muscle
Passes deep to the Mylohyoid Muscle within the Submandibular Triangle

104

Mylohyoid Nerve

Anterior Digastric, Branch of Trigem
Alveolar Branch of Mandibular Nerve which is a branch of Trigeminal

105

Mylohyoid Muscle

Mandible to the Hyoid Bone
Elevates the Floor of the Mouth and Tongue and Depresses the Jaw when the Hoid is Fixed

106

Submental Triangle

Unpaired Triangle that crosses the Midline
Right and Left Borders- Anterior Bellies of the Right and Left Digastric Muscles
Inferior- Hyoid Bone
Superficial (Roof)- Investing Layer of Deep Cervical Fascia
Deep (Floor)- Mylohyoid Muscle

107

Submental Lymph Nodes

Situated between the Anterior Bellies of the Digastric Muscles
They Drain the Central portions of the Lower Lip and Floor of the Mouth and the Apex of the Tongue

108

Isthmus

The connection between the right and left lobe of the Thyroid Gland

109

Inferior Thyroid Vein (Right and Left) at Brachiocephalic

Descends into the Thorax on the Anterior Surface of the Trachea and drains into the Brachiocephalic Veins

110

Parathyroid Glands

Small Glands on the Posterior Lateral surface of the Thyroid Gland
They control Calcium in our bodies

111

Carotid Triangle

Contents are the Carotid Arteries, branches of the External Carotid Artery, Part of the Hypoglossal Nerve, and Branches of the Vagus Nerve
Inferomedial Border- Superior Belly of Omohyoid
Inferolateral- Anterior Border of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle
Superior- Posterior Belly of the Digastric Muscle

112

Hypoglossal Nerve

Superior to Hyoid
A muscular branch of the Occipital Artery crosses superior to the Hypoglossal Nerve
Passes medial to the Posterior Belly of the Digastric muecle, Medial to the Stylohyoid Muscle, and Deep to the Mylohyoid Muscle

113

Ansa Cervicalis

Superior Root (Anterior)
Inferior Root (Posterior)
Innervates 3 of the 4 Infrahyoid Muscles (Omohyoid, Sternohyoid, and Sternothyroid)
Superior Root travels with the Hypoglossal Nerve and is mainly composed of nerves from the Anterior Ramus of C1
Inferior Root Passes around the Lateral side of the Carotid Sheath to join the Superior Root and Forms and Loop

114

Superior Laryngeal Nerve

External and Internal Branches Join to form this

115

Common Carotid Artery

In the Carotid Sheath
Runs up along the Lateral side of the neck until it splits into the Internal and External Carotid Arteries

116

Internal Carotid Artery

In the Carotid Sheath
Just runs up behind the ear after the Bifurcation

117

External Carotid Artery

Runs superiorly unit it passes on the Medial side of (Deep to) the Posterior Belly of the Digastric Muscle

118

Superior Thyroid Artery

Arises from the External Carotid Artery
Descends to the Superior Pole of the Lobe of the Thyroid Gland

119

Lingual Artery

Arises from the Anterior Surface of the External Carotid Artery near the Level of the Greater Horn of the Hyoid Bone
Passes deeply into the muscles of the Tongue

120

Occipital Artery

Arises from the Posterior surface of the External Carotid Artery and Supplies part of the Scalp

121

Posterior Auricular Artery

Arises from the Posterior surface of the External Carotid Artery and passes Posterior to the Ear to supply part of the Scalp

122

Ascending Pharyngeal Artery

Branch of the External Carotid Artery
Branches off close to the Bifurcation of the Common Carotid Artery

123

Carotid Sinus

"Name this Swelling/Swollen Area"
It is a swelled area just superior to the Bifurcaiton of the Common Carotid Artery

124

Carotid Body

It's a small mass of Tissues that lies right at the Bifurcation of the Common Carotid Artery into the Internal and External

125

Internal Jugular Vein

Lies in the Carotid Sheath

126

Superior and Middle Thyroid Veins

Tributaries of the Internal Jugular Vein
They drain the Thyroid (one is Superior and the other is in the Middle)

127

Vagus Nerve

It's in the Carotid Sheath
Lies between and Posterior to the Vessels

128

Parotid Duct

Crosses the Lateral surface of the Masseter Muscle about 2 cm inferior to the Zygomatic Arch
Pierces the Buccinator Muscle of the cheek and drains into the Oral Vestibule to the Second Maxillary Molar Tooth

129

Parotid Gland

Enclosed within the Parotid Sheath
Continuous with the Investing Layer of Deep Cervical Fascia
Lies in between the Cheek and the Lower portion of the Ear

130

Inferior Labial Artery

Branch off of the Facial Artery
Goes towards the Midline of the Face, Inferior to the Lower Lip

131

Superial Labial Artery

Branch off of the Facial Artery
Goes towards the Midline of the Face, Superior to the Upper Lip

132

Facial Nerve (CN VII)
Temporal Branch
Zygomatic Branch
Buccal Branches
Mandibular Branch
Cervical Branch

Temporal Branch- Crosses the Zygomatic Arch
Zygomatic Branch- Crosses the Zygomatic Bone
Buccal Branches- Cross the Superficial surface of the Masseter Muscle
Mandibular Branch- Parallels the Inferior margin of the Mandible
Cervical Branch- Crosses the angle of the Mandible to enter the Neck

133

Superficial Temporal Vein and Artery

Both pass deep to the Parotid Gland and run along the Anterior side of the Ear
Comes from External Carotid
Drains into External Jugular

134

Trigeminal Nerve (CN V)

Three branches of the Trigeminal Nerve supply Sensory Innvervation to the Face

135

Supraorbital Nerve

Ophthalmic Division of the Trigeminal Nerve
Reaches the Skin above the Eye

136

Infraorbital Nerve

Maxillary Divison of the Trigeminal Nerve
Supplies the sensory Innervation to the Inferior Eyelid, side of the Nose, and Upper Lip

137

Mental Nerve

Mandibular Division of the Trigeminal Nerve
Supplies Sensory Innervation to the Lower Lip and Chin

138

Auriculotemporal Nerve

Follows Superior Temporal Vessels
Mandibular Division of the Trigeminal Nerve
Innervates the Skin of the Anterior side of the Ear and Temporal Region

139

Masseter Muscle

The masseter consists of two parts: a Superficial and Deep muscle
Originates from the Zygomatic Arch and Maxilla and Inserts along the lateral surface of the coronoid process of the mandible

140

Levator Labii Superioris

Has a superior attachment to the Maxilla just below the orbital Margin and an Inferior attachment to the upper lip
Elevates the Upper lip

141

Zygomatic Major

Has a Lateral attachment to the Zygomatic Bone and a Medial attachment to the Angle of the Mouth
Draws the Angle of the Mouth Superiorly and Posteriorly (Helps smile)
Zygomatic Minor lies medial to the Major

142

Depressor Anguli Oris

Inferior attachment to the mandible and superior attachment to the corner of the Mouth
Depresses the Angle of the Mouth (Frown)

143

Depressor Labii Inferioris

Chin to Lower Lip
Lateral sides of the Mental Muscles
Depresses Lower Lip

144

Obicularis Oris

Passes both superior and inferior to the Oral Opening
The sphincter of the Mouth (The Kissing Muscle)

145

Scrotum

An outpouching of the Anterior Wall
Ball Sack

146

Scrotal Ligament

Attaches Testes to Scrotum
A band of tissue that anchors the Inferior Pole of the Testis to the Scrotum

147

Scrotal Septum

Divides the Scrotum into two compartments

148

Spermatic Cord

Runs in the Inguinal Canal and comes out the Superior Inguinal Ring
Contains the Ductus Deferens, Testicular Artery, and Testicular Veins

149

Ductus (Vas) Deferens

Runs in the Spermatic Cord in and eventually meets up with the tail of the Epididymis

150

Location of Cremaster Muscle

Derived from the Internal Oblique Muscle
Runs in the Inguinal Canal and passes through the Superficial Inguinal Ring

151

Pampiniform Plexus of Veins (Testicular Veins)

Veins running from the Testes through the Spermatic Cord back out for drainage

152

Testicular Artery

The artery that runs in the Spermatic Cord to the Testes

153

Testes

The testicles in the Scrotum

154

Tunica Vaginalis

A serous sac that is derived from the parietal peritoneum
has a visceral and Parietal Layer

155

Epididymis

Where sperm "Learn to Swim"
Head, Body, Tail
The Ductus Deferens eventually joins with the Epididymis at the Tail

156

Seminiferous Tubule

The Septa divide the Testis into Lobules and the Seminiferous Tubules are part of the Lobules

157

Tunica Albuginea

The Fibrous Capsule of the Testes

158

Penis

The Shaft

159

Bucks Fascia

Deep Fascia of the Penis that is an investing fascia

160

Corpus Cavernosa
Tunica Alugeninea of Corpus Cavernosa

There are two in the Penis
They each contain a Deep Artery of the Penis and are divided by the Septum of the Penis

161

Corpus Spongeosum
Tunica Alugeninea of Corpus Spongiosum

This part of the Penis runs along the Underside of the Shaft and contains the Spongy Urethra

162

Urethra
Prostatic
Membranous
Spongy

The Pee tube from the Bladder
The Prostatic is the portion in the Prostate
The Membranous is the portion between the Prostate and the Penis
The Spongy is the potion in the Corpus Sponguosum in the Penis

163

Glans/Prepuce

The distal expansion of the Corpus Spongiosum and it caps the two Corpora Cavernosa Penis
The Spongy Urethra Terminates by passing through the Glans
Just the Tip

164

Bladder

Lies Superior to the Prostate

165

Rectovesical Pouch

The Peritoneum that passes inferiorly between the Urinary Bladder and the Rectum

166

Prostate

In between the Bladder and the Penis containing the Urethra

167

Ejaculatory Duct
May be visible only on Model

A duct passing through the Prostate and meets up with the Urethra
Union of Ductus Deferens and Seminal Vesical

168

Anal Canal

Passes out of the Pelvic Cavity and enters the Anal Triangle

169

Anal Columns (Page 142)

5-10 Longitudinal Ridges of Mucosa in the Proximal part of the Anal Canal
Contain Branches of Superior Rectal Artery and Vein

170

External and Internal Anal Sphincter

Surrounds the Anal Canal
The Longitudinal Muscle of the Anal Canal separates the two Sphincter Muscles

171

Mons pubis

The Rounded mass of Fatty Tissue lying over the joint of the Pubic Bones

172

Glans of Clitoris

I think it's essentially the Dot of the Clitoris... Potentially the Shaft?

173

Prepuce of Clitoris

May be the "Hood" or covering over the Glans

174

External Urethral Orifice

Lies between the Clitoris and the Vaginal Orifice
The connection between the Bladder/Urethra and the Outside World

175

Labium Majus (Majora)

The skin around

176

Labium Minus (Minora)

The Inner Skin

177

Vesicouterine Pouch

The Peritoneum between the Urinary Bladder and the Uterus

178

Rectouterine Pouch

The Peritoneum between the Uterus and Rectum

179

Broad Ligament
Mesosalpinx

Formed by two layers of Peritoneum that extend from the Lateral side of the Uterus to the Lateral Pelvic Wall
Has 3 Parts:
Mesosalpinx- Supports the Uterine Tube
Mesovarium- Attaches the Ovary to the Posterior aspect of the Broad Ligament
Mesometrium- The part of the Broad Ligament that is below the attachment of the Mesovarium

180

Uterine Tube (Fallopian)
Isthmus
Infundibulum
Fimbria

Contained within the Superior Margin of the Broad Ligament
Isthmus- Narrow, Medial one third of the Uterine Tube
Ampulla- Widest and Longest part of the Uterine Tube
Infundibulum- Funnel-like end of the Uterine Tube
Fimbriae- Multiple Processes that surround the Distal margin of the Infundibulum

181

Ovarian Ligament

A Fibrous Ligament that connects the Ovary to the Lateral Surface of the Uterus

182

Round Ligament

Comes from the Inguinal Canal
Ends in Labium Majus

183

Ovary + Artery and Vein within Suspensory Ligament

Suspensory Ligament extends from the Ovary to the Lateral Abdominal Wall
Function is to contain the Ovarian Vessels and Nerves

184

Vagina

The middle hole

185

Vaginal Fornix

The point where the Vagina transitions to the Uterus

186

Uterus
Fundus
Body
Isthmus
Cervix
Endometrium
Myometrium
Perimetrium

Fundus- The rounded part of the body that lies Superior to the attachments of the Uterine Tubes
Body- Part of the Uterus between the Fundus and Cervix
Isthmus- The Narrowed Portion of the Body that is Superior to the Cervix
Cervix- The Thick-Walled portion of the Uterus that protrudes into the Vaginal Canal
Endometrium- Uterine Mucosa- The inside lining of the Uterus
Myometrium- The Thick Muscular wall of the Uterus
Perimetrium- The Peritoneal covering on the Surface of the Uterus

187

Urinary Bladder (Model Only)

Know where it is

188

Detrusor Muscle

Bundles of Smooth Muscle lining the wall of the Urinary Bladder

189

Anal Valve

Semilunar folds of Mucosa that Unite the distal ends of the Anal Columns.

190

Occipitofrontalis Muscle (Frontalis Muscle)

The Muscle on the Forehead
Raises Eyebrows

191

Epicranial Aponeurosis

The Connective tissue that goes from the Forehead to the back of the Head

192

Temporalis Muscle

Muscle on the Side of the Head

193

Outer/Inner Lamina

The White portion on either side of the Skull

194

Diploe

The Spongy Bone of the Skull Bone

195

Lobes of the Brain

Frontal Lobe- The Front half
Parietal Lobe- Middle Top Part
Occipital Lobe- The Back portion
Temporal Lobe- The Bottom Middle Part

196

Brain Stem

The Cord coming out of the Bottom of the Brain
Pons- The Walnut in the Brain Stem
Medulla Oblongota- The continuation of the Spinal Cord within the skull, forming the Lowest part of the Brain Stem

197

Meninx (Singular of Meninges)

Dura Mater- Periosteal Layer and Meningeal
Arachnoid Mater- Subarachnoid is filled with Cerebral Sinal Fluid in Life
Pia Mater- On Surface of the Brain

198

Middle Meningeal Artery

Branches that supply the Meninges
Along the Side of the Head

199

Bridging Veins

Drain into Superior Sagittal Sinus
Pass from the surface of the Brain into the Superior Sagittal Sinus along its Lateral Sides

200

Superior Sagittal Sinus

Small hole at the back of the Skull

201

Inferior Sagittal Sinus

Can't see it because it's further into the brain

202

Straight Sinus

Anterior to the Superior Sagittal Sinus and goes Straight towards the Top

203

Transverse Sinus

The Blue part running around the Back part of the Skull

204

Sigmoid Sinus

Down at the bottom running around the Groove

205

Cerebral Falx

The Fascia Layer dividing the two Halves of the Brain

206

Cerebellar Tentorium

The part laying around the Transverse sinuses

207

Cerebellar Falx

The Fascia part dividing the Cerebellum into two halves

208

Cranial Nerve

Olfactory- Little Nerve coursing straight into the Frontal Lobe
Optic- The X in the Middle
Trigeminal- On the Sides of the Pons

209

Superior and Inferior Extensor Retinaculum

Superior Lies over the Top where ankle socks would be
Inferior is Y-Shaped and further down on the Foot

210

Flexor Retinalculum

Medial Side of the Ankle

211

Plantar Aponeurosis

Fascia Covering the bottom of the Foot

212

Flexor Digitorum Brevis

Flexor Muscles on the Bottom of the Feet under the Plantar Aponeurosis

213

Abductor Hallicus

Inserts medial side of Great Toe, of the Medial Side of the Foot

214

Abductor Digiti Minimi

Inserts Lateral Side of the Small Toe, of the Lateral Side of the Foot