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Flashcards in Pragmatic Analysis Deck (12):

The extent of government regulation towards the control of media

Pragmatic Analysis


branch of philosophy that assesses truth in terms of effect outcome and
practicality. (degree of usefulness in results)



Key people...

1) William James- Harvard professor. Believed that individuals could mature and grow
by addressing personal problems through a pragmatic lens.

2) John Dewey- we learn from past experiences in order to manage future ones.

3) Richard Rorty- overcoming one of key criticisms. Relativism


belief that diverse approaches and theories related to a given subject are all
equally correct.
Pragmatism allows us to judge the worth of regulation according to the perceived
outcomes and effects of the regulation.” true, good” when it benefits socials problems
“bad” when it does not provide definite social benefits.



clear effects of given regulation on society at large. Generally beneficially.



factors a regulation should address as a result of context and situation.
Must adequately take into account and respond to socio-historical factors.



Issues in the Regulation of American Media (6 thematic areas)



1)Combating monopoly- regulation designed to prevent monopolies focused and
limiting the amount of a given market that any one company can own. Ex( broadcasting,
programming) for healthy competition failed due to corporate mergers and
conglomerations. Did provide diversity of programming options.

2)Protecting intellectual Property- legally protecting the creative work of artists.
Copyright- granting of exclusive control of a creative work to work’s creator.
Digital rights management(DRM)- closely related to copyright to the different
software programs that media industries employ to control the distribution and use of
digital intellectual property.
Pragmatically speaking, both copyright and DRM work toward correcting issues related
to information piracy.

3) Maintaining National Interest- maintaining national interest concerned with
domestic infrastructure and global image.
Encryption- scrambling important digital messages by software so those with decoding
program can read them.
Pragmatic failure because it simply did not make much of an impact at all. Failed for
public support neglected adequately address the contingency of the American right to

4) Promoting Diversity- establish a sense of equality in media content. Said that that all
ideas and perspectives on an issue are equally good, something not always true in the real
Negative in that reduced the amount of controversial issues on air. Trampled free speech

5) Managing morality- management of morality in media content one of the more
controversial areas. Three key types of regulated media content
Obscenity- most obscene media content is sexually explicit in nature. Miller 3 definition
Profanity- filthy words banned from public broadcast
Indecency- any material that is morally unfit for discussion.
Uneffective regulation current rating systems are ill-conceived forms of regulation not
depicting social issues intended to solve.

6) Ensuring Accuracy- news broadcast and print industries. The reporting of truth and
not false.


refers to publicly spoken, untrue and defamatory statements.



false printed statements that similarly damage a person’s character.



stimulate particular ways that those within the organization should
handle conflicts of interest ethical dilemmas and other problem areas.
Heavy penalties result from slander and libel legal cases push media outlets to remain
vigilant about facts they reports

Code of Ethics


Violence in the Media: a closer look at pragmatic Regulation (H R H)

Historical violence- this type of violence typically accompanies the portrayal of actual
historical events

Ritualistic violence- generates mostly emotional excitement pure and superficial. For
stimulation and entertain

Hyper-real violence- realistic believable technological over-stimulation dramatic story


Consequences of media violence

Aggressor Effect- exposure to media violence triggers arousal and promotes aggressive
behaviour. Disinhibition: consumption of media violence undermines the social norms
and sanctions against violence that individual abide. Enculturation: speculates that longterm
exposure to media violence constructs violence as the norm and thereby encourages
aggressive behaviour. Imitation: many young viewers will mimic aggressive behaviour
observed in media.

Victim effect- develop and experience a heightened fearfulness of violence

Bystander effect- insensitivity towards violence directed at others. Desensitization: idea
that repeated viewing of media violence leads to a reduction in emotional response to

Catharsis- can reduce and alleviate feelings of aggression relieves of violent urges.