Preclinical Studies in the Evaluation of anti-Addiction Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Preclinical Studies in the Evaluation of anti-Addiction Drugs Deck (16):
1

WHO estimate of global addiction deaths

12.4% of global deaths related to addiciton

2

Savings of treatment of addiction versus related healthcare costs

For every dollar spent on treatment, seven are saved
in related healthcare costs

3

In which part of the brain does intensity of cue-induced activity correlate with relapse probability?

Medial prefrontal cortex

4

Final common pathway of addiction

Prefrontal cortex -> Nucleus accumbens core -> Ventral pallidum

5

Cues that can lead to final common pathway of addiciton

Stress (amygdala), drug-related cues (ventral tegmental area, basolateral amygdala)

6

What does it mean that alcoholism is a polymodal disorder?

Not every alcoholic is alcoholic for the same reason

7

Issue with interplay between alcoholism and comorbid psychiatric disorders

Causation unclear. Psychiatric disorder because of alcohol abuse or alcohol abuse to self-medicate for psychiatric disorder

8

Drugs used to treat alcoholism
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) Naltrexone
2) Disulphiram (antabuse)
3) Benzodiazepines (for withdrawal)
4) Antidepressants

9

Problems with disulphiram

Extremely effective in preventing alcohol consumption, but needs a high degree of compliance.

10

Disulphiram

Inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Alcohol is converted to acetaldehyde in the liver. Acetaldehyde toxic, if it builds up, you feel really sick.

11

Naltrexone
1
2
3

1) Used to treat alcoholism
2) Variable outcomes for patients
3) More effective in those with family history of alcoholism, early age of use, comorbid use of other drugs

12

Model of drug-seeking behaviour
1
2
3
4

1) Allow rat to self-administer drug. With administration, an light illuminates.
2) Once rat is addicted, remove access to drug when rat attempts self-administration.
3) After several months, show rat light that was associated with drug use.
4) Rat begins self-administering drug again

13

Way to reduce amount which rats relapse in models of drug-seeking behaviour

Orexin1 receptor antagonists

14

Drugs used to stop nicotine addiction
1
2
3

1) Moafinil (amine uptake inhibitor)
2) Bupropion (amine uptake inhibitor)
3) Varenicline (partial nicotinic receptor agonist)

15

Drugs for marijuana, cocaine addiciton

None approved

16

Drugs for opiate addiciton
1
2
3
4

1) Buprenorphine
2) Methadone
3) Heroin prescription
4) Naltrexone