Flashcards in Preclinical Studies in the Evaluation of anti-Addiction Drugs Deck (16):
WHO estimate of global addiction deaths
12.4% of global deaths related to addiciton
Savings of treatment of addiction versus related healthcare costs
For every dollar spent on treatment, seven are saved
in related healthcare costs
In which part of the brain does intensity of cue-induced activity correlate with relapse probability?
Medial prefrontal cortex
Final common pathway of addiction
Prefrontal cortex -> Nucleus accumbens core -> Ventral pallidum
Cues that can lead to final common pathway of addiciton
Stress (amygdala), drug-related cues (ventral tegmental area, basolateral amygdala)
What does it mean that alcoholism is a polymodal disorder?
Not every alcoholic is alcoholic for the same reason
Issue with interplay between alcoholism and comorbid psychiatric disorders
Causation unclear. Psychiatric disorder because of alcohol abuse or alcohol abuse to self-medicate for psychiatric disorder
Drugs used to treat alcoholism
2) Disulphiram (antabuse)
3) Benzodiazepines (for withdrawal)
Problems with disulphiram
Extremely effective in preventing alcohol consumption, but needs a high degree of compliance.
Inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Alcohol is converted to acetaldehyde in the liver. Acetaldehyde toxic, if it builds up, you feel really sick.
1) Used to treat alcoholism
2) Variable outcomes for patients
3) More effective in those with family history of alcoholism, early age of use, comorbid use of other drugs
Model of drug-seeking behaviour
1) Allow rat to self-administer drug. With administration, an light illuminates.
2) Once rat is addicted, remove access to drug when rat attempts self-administration.
3) After several months, show rat light that was associated with drug use.
4) Rat begins self-administering drug again
Way to reduce amount which rats relapse in models of drug-seeking behaviour
Orexin1 receptor antagonists
Drugs used to stop nicotine addiction
1) Moafinil (amine uptake inhibitor)
2) Bupropion (amine uptake inhibitor)
3) Varenicline (partial nicotinic receptor agonist)
Drugs for marijuana, cocaine addiciton