Flashcards in Lecture 16 - Stem Cells in the Lung Deck (47)
From which germ layer does the lung epithelium arise?
From which germ layer does the innervation of the lung arise from?
Ectoderm (neural crest cells)
From which germ layer does the endothelium, haematopoietic cells and lung mesenchyme arise from?
Which part of the lung arises from the endoderm?
Which part of the lung arises from the ectoderm?
Which part of the lung arises from the mesoderm
Lung endothelium, mesenchyme and haematopoietic cells
Number of different cell types in the lung
How is the lung epithelium formed?
A proliferation of an endodermal progenitor in the foregut endoderm.
How are the conducting and respiratory airways formed?
How are the lungs developed?
1) Endodermal progenitor proliferates in the foregut endoderm, forming the lung epithelium.
2) Epithelial lung bud forms surrounded by loosely-packed mesenchymal cells.
3) Branching morphogenesis forms conducting and respiratory airways
4) Alveologenesis forms alveoli
Stages of lung development
When does surfactant start to be produced?
Sacular period (around week 25)
Where are lung epithelial stem cells located during embryonic development?
At the distal tip of the growing lung bud
How can you stain for embryonic epithelial lung stem cells?
Which type of stem cell are lung epithelial stem cells?
Which cell type can give rise to goblet cells and ciliated cells?
Cell types that club cells give rise to
Goblet cells and ciliated cells
Which part of the mesoderm do mesenchymal cells arise from?
What do mesenchymal cells give rise to in the lung?
Fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells
Expression of what marks mesenchymal progenitor cells in the lung?
What does LD2 expression mark?
Lung epithelial stem cells
What does FGF-10 expression mark?
Mesenchymal stem cells
Role of FGF-10
Epithelial progenitors grow towards FGF-10 (FGF-10 secreted by mesenchymal progenitors at the tip of the lung bud, driving formation of bud).
What does the lung vasculature develop from?
Endothelial progenitor cells of the mesoderm
Why do the heart and lungs often have comorbidities?
Because they share a stem cell line (multipotent cardiopulmonary progenitor)
How to use flow cytometry to analyse lung stem cells
1) Digest lungs with collagenase
2) Colony-forming assay
Rationale behind a colony-forming assay
Stem cells will be able to regenerate. More-differentiated cells won't be able to do so.
Phenotype of lung epithelial progenitor cell
How are lung epithelial progenitor cells grown in culture?
As a co-culture with lung stromal cells