Prentice Ch. 28 - Skin Disorders Flashcards Preview

BOC studying > Prentice Ch. 28 - Skin Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prentice Ch. 28 - Skin Disorders Deck (57):
1

What is a "Skin Lesion"?

-

2

Primary Lesions

Macule
Papule
Plaque/patch
Nodule
Tumor
Cyst
Wheal
Vesicle
Bulla
Pustule

3

Secondary Lesions

- result from primary lesions that have been manipulated
Scales
Crust
Fissure
Excoriation
Erosion
Ulcer
Scar

4

Macule

- small, flat, and circular discoloration smaller than a 1/2 inch in diameter
- freckles, flat nevus

5

Papule

- solid elevation less than 1/2 in in diameter
- Wart

6

Plaque or Patch

- macule or papule larger than 1/2 inch
- Vitiligo patch

7

Nodule

- solid mass less than 1/2 inch
- deeper into the dermis or subcutis
- dermatofibroma fibrosis

8

Tumor

- solid mass larger than 1/2 inch
- cavernous hemangioma (filled with blood vessels)

9

Cyst

- encapsulated, fluid-filled, lesion in the dermis or subcutis
- epidermoid cyst

10

Wheal

- Papule or plaque caused by serum collection into the dermis, allergic reactions
- urticaria (hives)

11

Vesicle

- fluid-filled elevation less than 1/2 inch just below epidermis
- smallpox/chickenpox

12

Bulla

- like a vesicle but larger
- second degree burn, friction blister

13

Pustule

- like a vesicle or bulla but contains pus
- acne

14

Cellulitis

- an inflammation of cells and connective tissue that extend deep into the tissues

15

Scales

- flakes of skin
- psoriasis

16

Crust

- dried fluid or exudates on the skin
- Impetigo

17

Fissure

- Skin Crack
- Chapping

18

Excoriation

- Superficial scrape
- Abrasion

19

Erosion

- loss of superficial epidermis
- scratch (superficial)

20

Ulcer

- destruction of the entire epidermis
- pressure sore

21

Scar

- healing of the dermis
- vaccination, laceration

22

Hyperkeratosis

- excessive growth of the horny tissue layer
- caused by excessive rubbing back and forth over the skin, along with abnormal pressure
- causing a thickening
- foot calluses

23

Hyperkeratosis S&S and Management

- ovular, elongated, brownish, may or may not be painful
- emery files/board
- pumice stones
- moisturizer
- can massage a small amount of lanolin twice a day may help with tissue elasticity.
- donut pad
- double socking
- decrease friction

24

Blisters

- shearing forces produce a raised area that contains a collection of fluid below or within the epidermis.

25

Blisters S&S

- pt. feels a hot spot
- can be superficial and contain clear liquid
- or can be deeper causing blood vessels to rupture
- pain is caused by pressure of fluid

26

Blister Management

- talcum powder
- petroleum jelly
- double socking
- correctly fitting shoes
- second skin
- icing

27

Soft corns

- caused by abnormal pressure and friction
- "calves mollis"
- result of wearing narrow shoes and having excessive foot perspiration
- usually occurs between the fourth and fifth toes
- circular area of thickened, white, macerated skin
between the toes at the base of proximal head of phalanges

28

Hard Corns

- calves durus
- most serious type
- caused by pressure of improperly fitting shoes and anatomical abnormalities
- hammertoes usually have hard corns develop on top of them
- local pain and disability with inflammation and thickening of soft tissue
- requires a physicians care

29

Corns Management

- if pain and inflammation are bad send to doc
- may need surgical removal
- get proper footwear

- Soft corn: proper footwear and put a cottonball in-between the toes; apply ultramide, can also use a foam pad to separate the toes

30

Excessive Perspiration (Hyperhidrosis)

- syrup like consistency
- increases the possibility of skin irritation
- makes bandages hard to keep on
- makes blisters, callus, and chafing much more likely to occur

31

Hyperhidrosis management

- astringent (alcohol or absorbent powder)
- iontophoresis

32

Chafing

- friction
- obese individuals
- heavy limbed people
- repeated skin rubbing in groin and axilla
- can separate the keratin from the granular layer of the epidermis causing oozing wounds

33

Chafing management

- cleansed once daily with mild soap and lukewarm water and mild soap
- can use burrows for 15-20 mins 3x per day
- to prevent it keep skin dry and clean and friction free
- cotton is your friend

34

Xerotic (Dry) skin

- usually during the winter months
- dehydration of the stratum corner
- appears dry with redness and scaling
- occurs first on shins, forearms, backs of hands and fcae
- can be itchy

35

Xerotic skin management

- prevent water loss and replace lost water
- bathing in tepid water
- use moisturizing soaps
- avoid soap on dry areas
- use emollient lotions
- refer to physician if condition worsens

36

Ingrown Toenails

- large toe is most often affected
- nail grows into the lateral nail fold and enters the skin
- results from lateral pressure of poorly fitting shoes, improper toenail trimming, or trauma

37

Ingrown toenails S&S

- pain and swelling
- if not treated can become severely inflamed and purulent

38

Ingrown toenail management

- soak in warm water (105-110) and butadiene for approx 20 mins
- pry the nail out of the skin
- can also lift nail and stick cotton under it to promote proper growth
- if condition is chronic send to doc to get nail cut
- prevention is more prevalent than management

39

Abrasions

- happens when skin is scraped against a rough surface
- top layer of skin is torn away and exposes capillaries
- can get contaminated with debris
- can get infected

40

Punctures

- from sharp object
- can get tetanus from it
- go to the hospital

41

Lacerations

- sharp or pointed object tears tissues
- usually jagged
- can get infected

42

Incisions

- done by doctor
- cut is smooth
- usually over a bone

43

Avulsions

- skin is torn from the body, often associated with major bleeding
- avulsed tissue should be placed on moist gauze saturated with saline
- doing this you can stick it into a plastic bag that's been immersed in cold water and taken to the hospital

44

Bruises

- consequence of sudden compressive blunt force
- soft tissue is traumatized
- RICE it

45

Wound Management

- all must be considered contaminated
- shows infection 2-7 days post wound

46

Bacterial infections

- single celled microorganisms
- 3 major shapes: spherical (cocci) occurs in clumps, doublets or chains and rods (bacilli); and spirochetes (corkscrew shaped)

47

Staphylococcus

- occurs in clumps on skin and upper respiratory tract

48

Streptococcus

- appears in long chains
- most are harmless
- scarlet fever, and staphylococci

49

Bacillus

- spore forming, aerobic, and gram positive, and mobile
- can cause systemic damage

50

MRSa

- Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
- happens in people who have aggressive sports where they get abrasions
- bacterial

51

MRSa S&S

- redness, swelling, tenderness,
- pus forming

52

MRSa Management

- send to doc
- antibiotics
- longer period and more strong

53

Impetigo Contagiosa

- very common
- usually presents in children
- presents in summer - fall time
- bacterial

54

Impetigo S&S

- mild itching
- soreness
- followed by pustules that rupture to form honey-colored crusts

55

Impetigo Management

- cleansing of crusted area
- topical antibiotic
- usually bactroban

56

Furuncles (boils)

- infections of the hair follicle that result in a pustule
- bacterial

57

Furuncles (boils) S&S

- back and neck usually infected
- butt too
- pustule