Prentice Ch. 7 - Protective Equipment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prentice Ch. 7 - Protective Equipment Deck (75):

Manufacturer liability

if an injury occurs as a result of an individual using a piece of equipment that is determined to be defective or inadequate for its intended purpose


ATC/coach/athlete liability

if they alter a piece of equipment thats on them


the best way to avoid litigation

follow exactly the manufacturer;s instructions for using and maintaining protective equipment



national operating committee on standards for athletic equipment


NOCSAE helmet standard

- not a warranty
- a statement that a particular helmet model met the requirements of performance tests when it was manufactured or reconditioned


"off the shelf" equipment

remade and packaged by the manufacturer and when taken out of the package may be used immediately without modification
- neoprene sleeves
- bethane shoe inserts
- protective ankle braces


football helmets must be

NOCSAE certified


NOCSAE warning

do not strike an opponent with any part of this helmet or face mask. this is a violation of football rules and may cause you to suffer severe brain or neck injury, may also occur accidentally while paying football. no helmet can prevent all such injuries. use this helmet at your own risk.
- must be attached to each helmet by both the manufacturer and reconditioner


Xenith helmet

lined with 18 thermoplastic airflow shock absorbers, which are embedded in a flexible cap


Fitting a football helmet

- a check for snugness should be made by inserting a credit card between the head and the liner
- fit is proper when the credit card is resisted firmly when moved back and forth
- if change in altitude, need to check air bladder to maintain snugness


Properly fitting a helmet

1. check snugness of cheek pads
2. helmet should cover base of skull
3. two finger width above the eyes
4. ear holes line up
5. three finger widths from face mask
6. helmet should not shift on head
- forward and back
- push down on crown of helmet
- swivel right and left
7. check chin straps


Hockey Helmets must be certified by...

1. canadian standards association (CSA)
2. hockey equipment certification council (HECC)


Do baseball helmets carry the NOCSAE warning



Face Protection

- face guards
- throat protection devices
- mouth guards
- ear guards
- eye protection devices



american society for testing materials


Throat (laryngotracheal) protection

baseball catchers, across goalies and ice hockey goalies are most at risk and protection should be mandatory


Mouth guards

- majority of dental traumas can be presented if the athlete wears a correctly fitted customized intramural mouth guard
- minimizes the lacerations to the lips and checks and fractures to the mandible


Fitting a mouth guards

- athletes air passages should not be obstructed in any way
- cutting down mouth guards to cover only the front of the teeth should never be permitted


Stock variety mouth guard

commercial mouth guard formed after submersion in boiling water


custom-fabricated type

formed over a mold made from an impression of at the athlete maxillary arch


Ear guards

water polo, wrestling, boxing


Glasses downsides

- can slip on sweat
- get bent
- fog from perspiration
- detract from peripheral vision
- can be difficult to wear with protective headgear


The type of glasses athletes should wear

- polycarbonate lenses, which are virtually indestructible
- if athlete must have glass lenses they need to be case hardened to prevent them from splintering
- when a case hardened glasses break they crumble eliminating the sharp edges


Corneal type contacts

- covers just the iris of the eye


Scleral type

- covers the entire front of the eye including the white


Downsides to contact lenses

- corneal abrasion
- corneal irritation if dust gets trapped underneath
- lens becomes dislodged


athletes prefer which kind of contact

hydrophilic lenses


Two type of eye surgeries

- radial keratectomy (RK)
- laser inset keratomileusis (LASIK)


Eye protection

- must be worn by all athletes who play sports that use fast-moving projectiles
- polycarbonate eye shields can be attached to football face masks, hockey helmets, and baseball and softball helmets


Cantilevered shoulder pads

- strap that extends from the front to the back of the shoulder pads that causes the shoulder pads to arch above the tip of the shoulder, thus dispersing pressure onto the pads rather than on the shoulder
- linemen, blocking/tackling


non cantilevered shoulder pads

- don't restrict shoulder motion as much
- QBs, receivers


Sports Bras

- primary concern was for breast protection against external forces that could cause bruising
- now they are designed to minimize excessive vertical and horizontal movements of the breasts that occur with running and jumping
- to be effective it needs to hold the breasts to the chest and prevent stretching of the ligaments of Cooper which can cause premature stretching



- poorly fitted socks can cause abnormal stresses on the foot
- socks that are too short crowd the toes
- socks that are too long can wrinkle and cause skin irritation
- socks should be clean and dry w/out holes


Toe box

a distance of 1/2 to 3/4 inch between the longest toe and the front of the shoe is recommended



1. must provide shock absorption
2. must be durable
3. must provide good traction
(flared heel may be good for running shoes but not aerobic/court shoes)



- part between the heel and the metatarsal heads
- reinforced with material of sufficient density to support the weight of the wearer



- form on which the shoe is built
- straight, semi curved, or curved


straight-lasted shoe

- filled in on the inside/medial side of the shoe to increase stability for people who have flat arches or run on the inside of their foot (pronators)



those who run on the inside of the foot


semi curved last

- designed for an average or normal foot.
- small curve on the medial side of the foot to fit a normal arch


Curved last

- built with a larger curve on the medial side of the shoe and has a wider outside portion of the shoe to provide more forefoot stability
- built for people with an abnormally high arch and for runners who run on the outside of their foot (supinators)



those who run on the outside of the foot


heel counter

- the heel counter is the portion of the shoe that prevents the foot from rolling from side to side
- should be firm but well fitted
- a good heel counter may prevent sprains and painful blisters


shoe upper

- upper part of the shoe is made of some combo of nylon and leather
- should be quick drying, lightweight, extra support
- extra padding in the area of the achilles tendon just above the heel counter


Arch Support

- durable yet soft supportive material
- should not have any rough seams or ridges inside the shoe which may cause blisters



- its worth the investment to buy a quality pair of shoes


Shoe fitting

- must approximate the conditions in which athlete will be performing in
- accommodate for end of day swelling
- snug but not too tight
- all toes can be fully extended w/out being cramped


Shoe fitting measurements

1. distance from the heel to the metatarsophalangeal joint
2. the distance from the heel to the end of the longest toe
- shoes should be selected for the longer of the two measurements



- longer cleats are more often used on a muddy or soft filed
- longer cleats are more likely to create a lower extremity injury because they will not slip or give away as easily as shorter cleats
- short cleats are most often used on synthetic or dry surfaces


Shoe lacing for a narrow foot or heel

cross laces and thread each through the loop on the other side before tightening and tying


shoe lacing for a wide foot

thread laces straight up without crisscrossing, beginning to crisscross when it doesn't squeeze the foot


shoe lacing for a low arch (pes planus)

beginning at the bottom crisscross lace shoes as normal halfway up the eyelets. use the loop lacing technique used for a narrow heel the rest of the way


shoe lacing for a high arch (pes cavus)

begin lacing as normal crisscrossing and stoping after the first set of holes. thread laces straight up each side, crisscrossing only before threading the last hole


heel cups

should be used for a variety of conditions including plantar fasciitis, heel spur, achilles tendinitis, and her bursitis
- they compress the fat pad under the heel providing more heel cushioning during weight-bearing activities


ankle braces

- most studies show that bracing is effective in reducing ankle injury
- bracing probably has little or no effect on performance; any change in performance is due to the athlete perception of support and comfort


knee pads

protect against a fall or a direct blow to the anterior aspect of the knee


protective knee braces

protective knee braces are used prophylactically to prevent injuries to the medial collateral ligament in contact sports such as football


rehabilitative knee braces

used following surgical repair or reconstruction of the knee joint to allow for controlled progressive immobilization


functional knee braces

may be worn during and following the rehabilitative period to provide support during functional activities
- can be ready made or custom


neoprene braces with medial and lateral supports

for individuals with sustained injury to the collateral ligaments and feel that they need extra support medially and laterally


soft materials (padding)

- gauze
- cotton
- adhesive felt
- sponge rubber felt
- foam rubber


Gauze padding

less versatile
used as an absorbent or protective pad



cheapest and most widely used material in sports. absorbs, mild padding


adhesive felt

adhesive mass on one side
combines a cushioning effect wit the ability to be held in place by the adhesive mass



matted wool
comfortable, semi resilient surface, which gives a firmer pressure than most sponge rubbers
- should be replaced daily



used for providing injury protection in sports
resilient, nonabsorbent and able to protect the body against compressive forces
- closed cell type is preferable in sports because it rebounds to its original shape quickly


thermomoldable plastics

- can provide casting for a fracture; support for a foot defect; or a firm, nonyielding surface to protect a severe contusion


heat forming plastics

low-temp variety
- when heated to 140-180 degrees the plastic can be accurately molded to a body part
- orthoplast and X-lite


heat-plastic foams

differences in density as a result of the addition of liquids. gas. or crystals
- used mostly shoe orthotic inserts and other body padding
- plasazote and aliplast
- plastic is heated until soft and maleable


casting materials



adhesive tape

linen and elastic tape can hold pads to a rigid backing or to adhesive felt (moleskin can be put against hard edges)


heat sources

hair dryer or moist heat unit or hot air gun


fastening material

leather can be cut and riveted in place to form hinge straps with buckles attached


customized hard shell pads

used for bruises


dynamic splints

OT would make a dynamic splint
- provides long duration tension on a healing structure usually a tendon so that it can return to a normal function