Prentice Ch. 5 - Nutrition and Supplements Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prentice Ch. 5 - Nutrition and Supplements Deck (59):
1

Nutrition

"the science of the substances in food that are essential to life"

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the three major functions of nutrients

1. growth
2. repair
3. maintenance

"of all tissues"

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the 6 classes of nutrients

1. carbohydrates
2. proteins
3. fats
4. vitamins
5. minerals
6. water

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Macronutrients

carbs
proteins
fats

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micronutrients

water
minerals
vitamins

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essential nutrient

has to be supplied by diet, body can't make it

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Dietary recommendations for macronutrients

- carbohydrate = 55% - 60%
- fat = 25% - 30%
- protein = 15% - 20%

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Sugars (carbohydrates)

- classified as simple sugars or complex (starch and most forms of fiber)

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monosaccharides

- single sugars
- found in most fruits, syrups, and honey
- glucose (blood sugar)

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disaccharides

- combination of two monosaccharides
- lactose (milk sugar)
- sucrose (table sugar)

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total caloric intake of sugar should be

15%

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Starches

- complex carbohydrates
- chains of glucose units that get broken down for energy
- rice, potatoes, and breads

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Fiber

- forms the structural parts of plans and is not digested by humans
- passes through the intestinal tract and adds bulk

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soluble fiber

- gums
- pectins
- oatmeal
- legumes
- some fruits

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cellulose

- insoluble
- whole-grain breads and bran cereals

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recommended amount of fiber in the diet is...

25 grams per day

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Fats

represents approx. 40 to 50 percent of the total caloric intake
- intake SHOULD be limited to less than 30% of total calories per day

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amino acids

- basic units that make up proteins
- most of them can be produced as needed in the body

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proteins in diet

- a diet that contains large amounts of protein will not support growth, , repair, and maintenance of tissues if the essential amino acids are not available in the proper proportions
- athletes consume more than twice the amount of recommended protein

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Fat-soluble vitamins

- A, D, E, & K
- found in fatty portions of food and oils

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water- soluble vitamins

- vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
- B complex vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate, B12, biotin, and pantothenic acid

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what regulates the metabolism of carbs, proteins and fats to obtain energy?

thiamin
riboflavin
niacin
biotin
pantothenic acid

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Antioxidants

- may prevent premature aging, certain cancers, heart disease, and other health problems
- vitamins C, E and beta-carotene

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Minerals

- more than 20 mineral elements have a role in body functions and most be supplied in the diet

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Magnesium

needed in energy supplying reactions

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sodium and potassium

are important for the transmission of nerve impulses

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Water

accounts for 60% of the body weight
- should be drinking a minimum of 2.5 L/day

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Electrolyte requirement

- sodium
- chloride
- potassium
- magnesium
- calcium

- they maintain the balance of water inside and outside the cells

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EARs

- estimated average requirements
- average daily nutrient intake levels estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a particular age group

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AI

- adequate intake
- recommended average daily intake level based on experimentally developed estimates of nutrient intake that are used when the RDA cannot be determined

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AI for calcium

- for young adults is 1000 mg

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Lactase deficiency

- difficulty digesting dairy products

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Iron supplements

- iron is needed to properly form hemoglobin

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anemia

lack of iron
- o2 carrying capacity ability of the RBC is reduced so muscles cannot obtain enough o2 to generate energy

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Two types of creatine

free creatine
phosphocreatine

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Phosphocreatine

- stored in skeletal muscle and is sued during anaerobic activity to produce ATP with the assistance of the enzyme creatine kinase
- oral supplements may enhance muscular performance during high-intensity resistance training
- **its banned in 2000 by the NCAA

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Are Herbal supplements regulated

No

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Is Caffeine a drug?

according to the Olympic officials
- if present in drug test must be under levels of five or six cups of coffee

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Lactovegetarians

individuals who consume milk products along wit plant foods
- look for low iron and zinc levels

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ovolactovegetarians

people who consume dairy products and eggs in their diet along with plant foods
- can be hard to obtain enough iron

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semivegetarians

people who consume animal products by exclude red meats
- usually adequate

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Pre-event nutrition

- should be ingested in the days prior to event
- maximize carbohydrate stored in the muscles as well as blood glucose
- suggestion is that the athlete consumes carbohydrates 3 to 4 hours before practice or competition

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Glycemic index

indicates how much different types carbohydrate effect blood glucose levels
- consuming foods that have a low to medium GI prior to an event is recommend because they produce only small fluctuations in blood glucose and insulin levels

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Recommendations for restoring muscle glycogen after exercise

- consuming carbohydrates t restore supplies of muscle glycogen as soon as possible after the work out to maximize recovery between sessions (less than 8 hrs post exercise)
- 0.45 to 0.55 grams of carbs per pound of body weight for each of the first 4 hours after exercise or until they eat their next large meal
- pasta, potatoes, oatmeal, sports drinks

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Low-carbohydrate diets

- carbohydrate restriction also increases the levels of glucagon, which is a hormone that causes body fat to be burned and aids in removing cholesterol deposits in the arteries

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Glycogen supercompensation

- by reducing training for at least 48 hours before the competition, the athlete can eliminate any metabolic waste products that may hinder performance

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high- carbohydrate diet

- restores glycogen levels in muscle and the liver
- this is called glycogen supercompensation

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Body Composition

- both fat and non fat components of the body
- college age female has between 20 and 25% body fat
- males have 12-15%
- should not go under 3% for men and 12% for women

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Obesity

excessive amount of body fat
- overweight is ok as long as person is not overfat
- females shouldn't be over 30%
- males shouldn't be over 20%

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Bioelectrical Impedance

this method predicts the percent of body fat by measuring bioelectrical impedance. it measures the level of hydration. if the body is dehydrated the measurement will tend to overestimate percent body fat relative to measurements taken when there is normal hydration

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Positive caloric balance

weight gain

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negative caloric balance

weight loss

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Minimum caloric intake

should not go below 1000 to 1200 calories for females
and 1200 to 1400 for men

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weight loss

- most efficient method of decreasing the percentage of body weight that is fat is though some combination of diet and exercise
- goal should be to lose 1.5-2 lbs per week
- weight loss of 4-5 lbs a week could mean dehydration

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weight gain

the recommended rate of weight gain is approximately 1 to 2 week

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Bulimia Nervosa

- typically gorges herself with thousands of calories after a period of starvation and the purges herself though induced vomiting and further fasting or though the use of laxative or diuretics
- white middle class female, perfectionistic, obedient, over complaint, highly motivated, successful academically, well like by her peers and a good athletic
- purge eating can cause stomach rupture, disruption of the heart rhythm and liver damages

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Anorexia Nervosa

- extremely thin, sees self as fat
- usually dies from this
- hyperactive, engaging in excessive amounts of exercise, highly secretive
- early intervention

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Anorexia Athletica

- exhibit a variety of signs including disturbance of body image, a weight loss greater then 5% of body weight, GI complaints, menstrual dysfunction, primary amenorrhea

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Female Athlete Triad Syndrome

- potentially fatal
- eating disorder (bulimia, anorexia)
- amenorrhea
- osteoporosis (bone that is lost may not be regained)