Describe the anatomical position (7 points)
Standing Facing forwards Face + eyes looking forward Upper limbs by their sides Palms facing forwards Feet together Toes pointing forwards
If a patient is lying supine, are they lying on their front or back?
On their back
A prone patient is lying on their ____
we are prone to falling over onto our front
How does the sagittal plane divide the body?
Into left and right parts
How does the coronal plane divide the body?
Into front and back parts
How does the axial plane divide the body?
Into upper and lower parts
Dorsal surface of the wrist refers to which surface?
Dorsal surface of the hand refers to which surface?
Dorsal surface of the foot refers to which surface?
Dorsal surface of the tongue refers to which surface?
Posterior/top of tongue
Volar surface is which surface of which part of the body?
Anterior surface of the wrist
Palmar surface is which surface of which part of the body?
Anterior surface of the hand
Plantar surface is which surface of which part of the body?
Inferior surface of the foot
Ventral surface is which surface of which part of the body?
Anterior/underside surface of tongue
What is meant by flexion?
Decreasing the angle at a joint
What is meant by abduction?
Movement away from the median sagittal plane
All anterior movements at joints superior to the knee joints are extensions. True/False?
They are flexions
From the knee joint to the toes, all anterior movements at joints are flexions. True/False?
They are extensions
Describe dorsiflexion of the ankle
Dorsal surface of foot moves superiorly
this is actually an extension!
Describe plantar flexion of the ankle
Plantar surface of the foot moves inferiorly
What is meant by pronation of the forearm?
Anterior surface of forearm rotates such that the palm of the hand faces posteriorly
What is meant by supination of the forearm?
Rotating back from the pronated position back into the anatomical position
When in the anatomical position, the forearm is pronated. True/False?
It is supinated
What is involved in abduction of the thumb?
Anterior movement of thumb away from the palm
What is involved in extension of the thumb?
Lateral movement of thumb away from the palm
What are the 4 basic tissue types in the body?
Epithelia, muscle, connective tissue, nerves
What is the major lymphatic vessel of the body?
Name some functions of bone
Support + protect organs
Provide attachment for skeletal muscle
What type of joint is the coronal suture?
The interosseous membrane between the radius and ulnan is an example of a cartilaginous joint. True/False?
It is a fibrous joint
Give an example of a primary cartilaginous joint
Epiphyseal growth plate
Give an example of a secondary cartilaginous joint
What happens in “slipped disc”?
Inner nucleus pulposus squeezes out and compresses spinal cord
What are the 2 types of bursae?
Extensions of the joint cavity
Closed sacs near the joint cavity
Give an example of a pivot joint
Give an example of a plane joint
Give an example of a hinge joint
Give an example of a ball and socket joint
Give an example of a biaxial joint
Describe a temporomandibular joint
Articulation between the mandibular fossa and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone + the head of the condylar process of the mandible
What is the process by which long bones develop called?
What are the 2 components of bone?
Outer cortex (dense, strong, compact bone) Inner medulla (spongy, weak, light bone)
Outer cortex of bone may contain bone marrow, the site of RBC production. True/False
Inner medulla may contain bone marrow
What is the outermost layer of bone called?
What makes up the axial skeleton?
Bones of the skull, neck, chest, abdomen and back
What makes up the appendicular skeleton?
Bones of the upper limbs, pectoral girdle, lower limbs and pelvic girdle
List the bones of the neurocranium
Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Parietal bone Occipital bone
Which bone forms the roof of the nasal cavity?
What foramen does the spinal cord pass through to the skull?
Describe the vertebral column in terms of groups of vertebrae
Cervical (C1-C7) Thoracic (T1-T12) Lumbar (L1-L5) Sacral (5 sacral form 1 sacrum) Coccygeal (4 form 1 coccyx)
Name the components of the vertebral arch
2 x lamina
2 x pedicle
Cardiac muscle is striated. True/False?
Muscle without functioning motor supply, therefore cannot contract
Muscle has motor supply, but descending controls not working, resulting in over-contraction
The heart is located in the anterior mediastinum. True/False?
What are the 3 layers surrounding the heart called?
The parietal layer is stuck to the heart. True/False?
It is stuck to the fibrous pericardium
Which pericardial layer is stuck to the heart?
Where is the pericardial cavity located?
Between the visceral and parietal layers
What are the 3 layers of the heart called?
Epicardium (visceral pericardium)
Myocardium (muscle layer)
Endocardium (internal lining)
Which arteries are the first branches of the aorta?
Name the 3 surfaces of the heart
Anterior, base (posterior) and diaphragmatic (inferior) surfaces
What restricts spread of cardiac electrical impulses?
Cardiac skeleton; fibrous rings of the valves
What does the upper respiratory tract comprise of?
At the level of which vertebra does the larynx become the trachea and the pharynx become the oesophagus?
How many bronchopulmonary segements does each lung have?
What supplies the bronchopulmonary segments?
The amount of cartilage increases distally in the respiratory tree. True/False?
What is the nasal septum made up of?
Bony posterior (ethmoid + vomer) Cartilaginous anterior (septal cartilage)
Name the cartilages of the larynx
Large foreign bodies tend to block the URT at the level of what?
Name the 4 muscles of mastication
Medial + lateral pterygoid
Which muscle prevents drooling?
Name the 4 papillae on the tongue
The outer layer of smooth muscle in the intestines is circularly arranged. True/False?
It is longitudinal; inner muscle is circular
What is meant by an intraperitoneal organ?
Almost completely covered in visceral peritoneum
N.B. is not in the peritoneal cavity
What is meant by a retroperitoneal organ?
Located in the retroperitoneum (behind parietal peritoneum), covered only anteriorly by visceral peritoneum
Name the organs of the foregut
Oesophagus 1/2 duodenum Liver Gall bladder Spleen 1/2 pancreas
Name the organs of the midgut
2/3 transverse colon
Name the organs of the hindgut
1/3 transverse colon
1/2 anal canal
What are the 3 midline branches of the aorta?
Superior mesenteric artery
Inferior mesenteric artery
Where do branches of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries lie?
SMA = mesentery of small intestine IMA = mesentery of sigmoid colon
The splenic vein drains blood from the midgut to the HPV. True/False?
Drains blood from the foregut
The IMV drains blood from the hindgut to the HPV. True/False?
Drains to the splenic vein (which drains to HPV)
SMV drains blood from midgut to HPV. True/False?
Endocrine glands secrete enzymes. True/False?
They secrete hormones
What is the diencephalon?
Hypothalamus + thalamus
What connects the hypothalamus and pituitary gland?
What hormones do hypothalamic neurones manufacture?
Where are oxytocin and ADH transported to from hypothalamic neurones?
Hypothalamic neurones secrete release or release-inhibitory hormones into the hypophyseal portal venous system. Where does this blood then go?
To anterior pituitary and then a second set of veins (hypophyseal veins) and then eventually the SVC
What is an enlarged thyroid gland called?
How many pulmonary veins are there?
4 (2 from each lung)
Sympathetic system has craniosacral outflow. True/False?
Name the branches of the arch of the aorta
Left common carotid artery
Left subclavian artery
Which arteries form the Circle of Willis?
Right and left internal carotid arteries Basillar artery (formed by right + left vertebral arteries)
Where is the carotid sinus located?
Most proximal part of the internal carotid artery
What does the subclavian artery become?
Axillary artery - brachial artery - radial and ulnar arteries
What does the abdominal aorta bifurcate into?
Right and left common iliac arteries
Which branch of the common iliac artery supplies the pelvis?
Internal iliac artery
Which branch of the common iliac artery supplies the lower limbs?
External iliac artery
The thoracic duct drains lymph into the left venous angle. True/False?
What drains lymph into the right venous angle?
The right lymphatic duct
In the upright posture, excess peritoneal fluid will collect where?
Rectouterine pouch of Douglas
Fertilisation usually occurs where?
Ampulla of uterine tube
Where does implantation usually occur?
The body of the uterus
Describe passage of sperm from seminiferous tubules
Pass into rete testis - head of epididymis - vas deferens - spermatic cord - ejaculatory duct - urethra
What does the spermatic cord contain?
Pampiniform venous plexus
What are the structures of the renal hilum?
Where are nephrons located?
In renal pyramids in the medulla
What are the 3 major sites of ureteric constriction?
Anterior aspect of common iliac artery
What do axons do?
Convey action potentials
Which cranial nerves have parasympathetic innervation?
C3, C7, C9, C10
CN I + its function + which foramen it passes through
Olfactory, sensory, cribriform plate
CN II + its function + which foramen it passes through
Optic, sensory, optic canal
CN III + its function + which foramen it passes through
Oculomotor, motor, superior orbital fissure
CN IV + its function + which foramen it passes through
Trochlear, motor, superior orbital fissure
CN V + its function + which foramen it passes through
Trigeminal, sensory + motor
Opthalmic = superior orbital fissure
Maxillary = foramen rotundum
Mandibular = foramen ovale
CN VI + its function + which foramen it passes through
Abducent, motor, superior orbital fissure
CN VII + its function + which foramen it passes through
Facial, sensory + motor, internal acoustic meatus
CN VIII + its function + which foramen it passes through
Vesibulocochlear, sensory, internal acoustic meatus
CN IX + its function + which foramen it passes through
Glossopharyngeal, sensory + motor, jugular foramen
CN X + its function + which foramen it passes through
Vagus, sensory + motor, jugular foramen
CN XI + its function + which foramen it passes through
Spinal accessory, motor, jugular foramen
CN XII + its function + which foramen it passes through
Hypoglossal, motor, hypoglossal canal
White matter in the brain is deep to grey matter. True/False?
White matter in the CNS is deep to grey matter. True/False?
Grey matter is deep to white matter in the CNS
What do roots and rootlets do?
Connect spinal nerve to spinal cord
What do rami do?
Connect spinal nerve to body wall structures