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Flashcards in Principles of Infectious disease Deck (50):
1

What is the systematic approach for selecting antimicrobial agents

Confirm presence of infection
identify pathogen
select presumptive therapy
therapeutic steps

2

What does a left shift indicate

Bands (premature neutrophils) in blood > 10%
Bacterial infection

3

How to confirm presence of infection

H&P exam
predisposing factors
signs and symptoms
- fever
- wbc count
- esr
- crp
- procalcitonin
- pain and inflammation
- disease specific signs and symptoms

4

what is the range for CRP

.5 - 1 normal
1 - 1.5 moderate inflammation
>10 infection

5

What is bacteria classified as

Susceptible
intermediate
resistent

6

What should peak dosage be

2 - 4 x MIC

7

What factors increase antibiotic resistance

Overuse
low dose
prolonged exposure
inappropriate antibiotics
day care

8

What are requirements for antimicrobial activity

penetrate cell
reach target
kill organism

9

What are mechanisms of resistance

decreased permeability - porin channels close
drug efflux - pump abx out
drug inactivation - enzymes attack abx
altered target - change ribosomes with CH3 so no binding

10

what are gram + cocci

Staph
Strep
Enterococcus

11

What are gram - cocci & cocco-bacilli

H. flu
Neisseria
Moraxella catarrhalis

12

What are Enterobacteriacea

EKP
- e. coli
- klebsiella
- proteus
ESP
- enterobacter
- serratia
- providencia

13

What are anaerobes

bacteroides fragilis

14

What is PA

pseudomonas aeruginosa

15

How to identify pathogen

Stains
Serologies
Culture and sensitivity

16

What are the stains

Gram Stain
- G+ purple (peptidoglycan)
- G- pink
Acid-fast
- mycobacteria
- nocardia
India Ink
- cryptococcus

17

What are gram stains routinely performed on

CSF for meningitis
Urethral smears for STI
abscesses or effusions

18

What is the gold standard for identifying bacteria

Cultures

19

What are the types of antibody and antigen detection

Immunoflorescence
Latex agglutination
Enzyme-linked Immunoassay

20

What is identified through immunoflorescence

CMV
RSV
Varicella
Treponema pallidum
Borrelia burgdorferi

21

What is identified through Latex agglutination

Meningococcus in CSF
Legionella pneumophelia

22

What is identified through Enzyme-linked immunoassay

HIV
Herpes
RSV
Preumococcus
N. gonorrhea
Haemophilus pylori

23

What is identified through PCR

Anthrax

24

What are host factors to consider when selecting therapy

drug allergies
age
pregnancy
renal and hepatic function
site of infection
underlying disease states
concomitant drug therapy

25

What are drug factors to consider when selecting therapy

antimicrobial activity
spectrum of activity
pharmacokinetics
pharmacodynamics
tissue penetration
adverse effects
cost
convenience

26

What does bactericidal mean

kills organisms

27

What does bacteriostatic mean

inhibit growth of bacteria but does not kill. Lets body immune system kill bacteria

28

How prevent bacterial growth

destroy cell wall
inhibit protein synthesis

29

What is MIC

Minimum inhibitory concentration
lowest antimicrobial concentration that prevents visible growth

30

What are the susceptibility testing methods

macrodilution
microdilution
kirby-Bauer disk diffusion
E-test
Automated

31

What are the automated susceptibility testing methods

Vitek
Microscan

32

What are concentration and time-dependent effects

MIC
concentration-dependent killing rate
postantibiotic effect

33

Which 2 bacteria should have 2 abx used on them at same time

Enterococcus
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

34

What are typical pathogens for Acute Otitis Media

S. pneumoniae
H. flu
M. catarrhalis

35

What are typical pathogens for Sinusitis

S. pneumoniae
H. flu
M. catarrhalis

36

What are typical pathogens for Meningitis

S. pneumoniae
H. flu
N. meningitidis

37

What are typical pathogens for Chronic Bronchitis

C. pneumoniae
M. Pneumoniae
S. pneumoniae
H. flu
M. catarrhalis

38

What are typical pathogens for Pneumonia

M. Pneumoniae
S. pneumoniae
H. flu
Pseudomonas
Staph aureus

39

What are typical pathogens for Bowel perf-appendicitis

E. coli
Klebsiella
Enterococcus
Pseudomonas
Bacteriodes Fragilis

40

What are typical pathogens for Urinary Tract Infections

E. Coli
Klebsiella
Proteus
Enterococcus

41

What are typical pathogens for Osteomyelitis

Staph

42

What do staph affect

skin
soft tissue

43

What do Strep effect

Respiratory tract infections

44

What do enterococcus effect

GI
wounds

45

What do Neisseria effect

meningitis

46

What do H flu and moraxella catarrhalis effect

sinusitis
bronchitis
acute otis media

47

What do EKP effect

many
UTI
GI

48

What do ESP effect

GI

49

What do pseudomonas aeruginosa effect

pneumonia
various

50

What do anaerobes effect

GI
aspiration pneumonia