Principles of Neurobiology/Orientation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Principles of Neurobiology/Orientation Deck (13):

What are the 3 subdivisions of the brain?

Cerebrum, Cerebellum and brainstem.


What is the main function of the brainstem?

Controls breathing, heart rate and life support.


What is the main function of the cerebellum?

Controls balance, body postion and movement in space.


Discuss the organization of the cerebrum.

Frontal lobe: Motor cortex
Parietal lobe: Somatosensory cortex
Temporal lobe: Auditory cortex
Occipital lobe: Visual cortex


What is the function of the corpus callosum?

Contains axons the connect the two hemispheres of the brain.


Discuss ventricles and CSF

CSF is synthesized in the ventricles, then flows within the meninges. (Meninges are NOT part of the CNS)


What is the relationship between the thalamus, hypothalamus and third ventricle?

They surround the third ventricle


What are the functions of the thalamus and hypothalamus?

Thalamus: Relay station for afferent sensory
Hypothalamus: Maintains set points for homeostasis, links the nervous and endocrine systems and coordinates body's response to the environment.


What is the basal ganglia?

Primary role in movement planning. Includes the caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus.


What is the limbic system and its components?

Plays a key role in emotions and storing memories; Hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.


Discuss the Corticospinal Tract

1. All axons (UMN) cross the midline at the caudal medulla.
2. Descend to the appropriate level of the spinal cord.
3. Synapse with LMN cell bodies in the ventral horn.


What is the overall effect of UMNs on LMNs?



Discuss the Corticobulbar tract?

1. Cell bodies originate in frontal lobe, UMN axons cross midline at different levels in brainstem.
2. LMNs exit brainstem as cranial nerves to innervate muscles of the head.