Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 15 Language Flashcards Preview

Miscellaneous > Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 15 Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 15 Language Deck (27)
0

Describe the milestone ages for language acquisition

4 months: babble
1 year: one word
2 years: telegraphic sentences
2-3 years: rapid improvement: sentences used

1

Which regions in the brain are important for language?

Broca' area
Wernicke's area

Other areas are also important but not very discrete

2

Where is Broca's area located?

In the left frontal lobe

3

What is the function of Broca's area?

Production of language

4

What do lesions in Broca's area cause?

Expressive aphasia: inability to speak due to lack of muscle coordination etc

5

Where is Wernicke's area located?

Left temporal lobe, right near the primary auditory cortex

6

What is the function of Wernicke's area?

Understanding of speech

7

What do lesions in Wernicke's area cause?

Receptive aphasia

8

What is conduction aphasia?

This is possibly to do with lesions or damage to the path that connects Broca's and Wernicke's areas

9

Compare fluency of speech in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia

Broca's: interrupted, not fluent
Wernicke's: fluent

10

Compare grammar in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia

Broca's: disordered grammar
Wernicke's: grammar ok

11

Compare syntax in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia

Broca's: syntax is disordered
Wernicke's: ok syntax

12

Compare comprehension in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia

Broca's: comprehension intact
Wernicke's: no comprehension

13

Compare repetition in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia

Broca's: repetition
Wernicke's: no repetition

14

Compare words in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia

Broca's: words disordered
Wernicke's: inappropriate words

15

What is the pathology of Alexia?
What are the symptoms?

Word blindness
Able to write down words that have been dictated
Unable to read the words back or recognise them

16

Describe the localisation of language areas in the brain across individuals

Differs between individuals

17

Describe hemispheric asymmetry

Left hemisphere: narrower angle of Sylvia's fissure
Speech
Syntactical and lexical language
Right eye field
Right body sensation
Writing

Right: steeper angle of Sylvia's fissure
Rudimentary speech
Spatial abilities
Emotional colouring of language
Left eye field
Left side of body sensation

18

What process are localised in the left hemisphere?

.

19

What process are localised in the right hemisphere?

.

20

In what ways is human language unique? Compare humans with apes

We are the only species that has such complex and generative language

21

What is the idea of universal grammar?
What did the phylogenetic mapping of languages show?

This is the idea that most human languages are in fact quite similar

The phylogenetic mapping of languages shows that n fact there in unlimited variation between the languages

22

How does the migration out of Africa theory relate to language?

There is a correlation between the distance away from Africa and the number of phonetic sounds in a language

Africa has the most
Further away, much fewer sounds

23

Describe why the Hobbit man of Florensis is important for language

The hobbit man was tiny,ap and specifically he had a very small brain.

However, he was around not that long ago evolutionarily.

What would his speech have been like? Would the smaller brain have had an impact?

24

What brain mechanisms underlie language?
Are there any important genes?

FOXP2 gene - gene for a transcription factor

This gene was thought to be responsible for complex language, because mutations in the gene were linked to speech disorders in a family tree.

However, this transcription factor controls the expression of many genes: movement, perception etc.

25

Is FOXP2 found in apes and monkeys?

Yes, however it has a few differences in amino acids

People asked the question whether if we put our version of the gene into monkeys, would they evolve complex language? Probably not

26

What is interesting about the language of the Pirahã people ?

Their language lacks words for many seemingly vital concepts (colour, numbers, past tense etc)

This shows that languages only evolve words that we need

Language is just another way our brain represents the outside world

Decks in Miscellaneous Class (109):