Flashcards in Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 15 Language Deck (27)
Describe the milestone ages for language acquisition
4 months: babble
1 year: one word
2 years: telegraphic sentences
2-3 years: rapid improvement: sentences used
Which regions in the brain are important for language?
Other areas are also important but not very discrete
Where is Broca's area located?
In the left frontal lobe
What is the function of Broca's area?
Production of language
What do lesions in Broca's area cause?
Expressive aphasia: inability to speak due to lack of muscle coordination etc
Where is Wernicke's area located?
Left temporal lobe, right near the primary auditory cortex
What is the function of Wernicke's area?
Understanding of speech
What do lesions in Wernicke's area cause?
What is conduction aphasia?
This is possibly to do with lesions or damage to the path that connects Broca's and Wernicke's areas
Compare fluency of speech in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia
Broca's: interrupted, not fluent
Compare grammar in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia
Broca's: disordered grammar
Wernicke's: grammar ok
Compare syntax in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia
Broca's: syntax is disordered
Wernicke's: ok syntax
Compare comprehension in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia
Broca's: comprehension intact
Wernicke's: no comprehension
Compare repetition in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia
Wernicke's: no repetition
Compare words in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia
Broca's: words disordered
Wernicke's: inappropriate words
What is the pathology of Alexia?
What are the symptoms?
Able to write down words that have been dictated
Unable to read the words back or recognise them
Describe the localisation of language areas in the brain across individuals
Differs between individuals
Describe hemispheric asymmetry
Left hemisphere: narrower angle of Sylvia's fissure
Syntactical and lexical language
Right eye field
Right body sensation
Right: steeper angle of Sylvia's fissure
Emotional colouring of language
Left eye field
Left side of body sensation
What process are localised in the left hemisphere?
What process are localised in the right hemisphere?
In what ways is human language unique? Compare humans with apes
We are the only species that has such complex and generative language
What is the idea of universal grammar?
What did the phylogenetic mapping of languages show?
This is the idea that most human languages are in fact quite similar
The phylogenetic mapping of languages shows that n fact there in unlimited variation between the languages
How does the migration out of Africa theory relate to language?
There is a correlation between the distance away from Africa and the number of phonetic sounds in a language
Africa has the most
Further away, much fewer sounds
Describe why the Hobbit man of Florensis is important for language
The hobbit man was tiny,ap and specifically he had a very small brain.
However, he was around not that long ago evolutionarily.
What would his speech have been like? Would the smaller brain have had an impact?
What brain mechanisms underlie language?
Are there any important genes?
FOXP2 gene - gene for a transcription factor
This gene was thought to be responsible for complex language, because mutations in the gene were linked to speech disorders in a family tree.
However, this transcription factor controls the expression of many genes: movement, perception etc.
Is FOXP2 found in apes and monkeys?
Yes, however it has a few differences in amino acids
People asked the question whether if we put our version of the gene into monkeys, would they evolve complex language? Probably not