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Flashcards in MCB Lecture 55 Intro to Pathology Deck (26)
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Outline the characteristics of disease

Aetiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical and pathological manifestations
Complications
Prognosis
Epidemiology

1

What is aetiology?

The cause of the disease

2

What is Pathogenesis?

The mechanism causing the disease

3

What are the clinical and pathological manifestations?

These are the structural and functional features of the disease

4

What are complications?

These are secondary or systemic consequences of the disease

5

What is prognosis?

This is the expected outcome of the disease

6

What is epidemiology?

Incidence, prevalence, distribution

7

Describe the characteristics of disease using the example of cancer

Aetiology: eg. UV radiation
Pathogenesis: radiation causes mutation in the DNA
Clinical and pathological manifestation: tumour
Complications: metastasis
Prognosis: death or remission
Epidemiology: eg. Men 1 in 12, women 1 in 23

8

What are some of the general causes of cell injury?

Hypoxia
Physical trauma
Chemical agents
Immunologic reactions
Infectious agents
Aging
Genetic defects
Nutritional imbalance

9

Describe how hypoxia can cause disease

Hypoxia damages tissue, because tissues require oxygen to perform all of their function.

10

What are the causes of hypoxia?

Pneumonia, anaemia, CO poisoning, occlusion

Occlusion -> ischemia -> hypoxia -> tissue damage

11

What is ischemia?

The reduction of blood flow to an area

12

What are some chemical agents that cause disease

Poison
Alcohol
Tobacco
Oxygen
Glucose, water-salt balance
Environmental toxins: lead, mercury

13

What did Paracelsus say about poisons?

"all substances are poisonous, the right dose separates a poison from a remedy"

14

What are some infectious agents that cause disease?

Bacteria
Viruses
Prions
Macroparasites
Fungi

15

What is the effect of alcohol on the body?

Alcohol causes changes in liver cells, leading to cirrhosis of the liver

Cirrhosis liver tissue has it's structure and function interrupted

16

What is the effect of prions?

Prions are protinaceous infectious particles.
These are mutant form of the proteins

Eg. Creurzfeld Jacob, bovine spongiform encephalitis
The prion causes vacuolation of tissue in the brain

17

What are some causes of immunological reaction?

Hypersensitivity: allergy
Autoimmunity
Immune deficiency, acquired or genetic
Immune imbalance
Graft rejection

18

Describe what is happening in rheumatoid arthritis

In rheumatoid arthritic, there is an autoreactive immune response concentrated in the joints.
Many immune cells are attracted to the joints
Joints become clogged
Tissue and cartilage is degraded

19

Describe some ways that genetic defects can cause injury

- single gene mutation, Tay Sachs
- congenital malformation, Trisomy 21

20

Describe what is happening in Tay sachs disease

There has been a single base pair substitution, leading to a defective ganglioside degredation enzyme

Ganglioside builds up in neurons, damaging the nervous system

21

Describe some ways that nutritional imbalance can lead to disease

Deficiency
Malnutrition, vitamin (a or b)

Excess
Obesity
Hypertension
Type 2 diabetes

22

Describe how physical agents can cause disease

1. UV radiation
2. Pressure
3. Heat/ cold
4. Electrical
5. Mechanical trauma

23

Describe how aging can lead to disease

Decline in proliferative ability

Effect of exogenous factors
-> cause damage

24

List some of the causes of injury that we are exposed to every day

Burns
Touching something in the freezer
Immune responses
Scratches, bruises
Smoking
UV
Insect bite

25

Describe the mechanism of Tay sachs disease

The enzyme that breaks down GM2 gangliosides is dysfunctional.

This ganglioside builds up in the brain, leading to non functional neurons

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