Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 21 Looking at Neuronal Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 21 Looking at Neuronal Function Deck (11)

What is neuro informatics and give some of the fields that it combines

It is the integration of many sub fields of neuroscience

Neuro chemistry


What was the first technology used to look at the brain?
What was the capabilities of this technology?

The microscope

We were able to see cells, neurons


What did Brodmann do?

He created a map of the brain, differentiating between areas with different neurons


Describe the difference between magnifications and resolution

Magnification: making something bigger
Resolution: making an image clear, being able to differentiate between two dots


What did Ernst Abbé define?

He defined the limit of diffraction
There is a physical law that states that there is a point past which we can not resolve an image


What does the electron microscope allow us to do?
What are some limitations of the electron microscope?

The electron microscope allows us to resolve images of very small structures, ie we can see individual synapses

There is a size, smaller than which we cannot resolve the image
The process of preparing a tissue for the EM is such that the tissue is so far from living.


Give a few of the new technologies that subvert the problem of the limit of diffraction

1. Using fluorophores
Eg. Tag antibodies that bind to synaptic proteins fluorescently. We can now see where the synapses on a neuron are happening
2. Super resolution microscopy
These technologies determine the precise location of molecules is a tissue.
We are not seeing an actual image of the molecules, but instead an indication on a map where they all are


What is temporal resolution?
Why is it important?
Give an example of it

This is how good a technology is at differentiating two events that occur in quick succession

Eg. Microelectrodes in a single neuron can detect the electrical potential changes that constitute a single action potential


Describe the function of the Patch clamp electrode tip

The hole is in the size range of a single protein (ion channel) on a cell membrane

The patch clamps forms a very tight seal on the area of membrane, and can detect the activity of a single ion channel


Describe how the patch clamp electrode tip technology has given us information about ion channels

What is the structure of an ion channel?

With this technology we can determine the excitability, as well as structure of an individual ion channel

It is a multimer with a channel just large enough for ions to flow through


Describe the interaction between spatial and temporal resolution

Different technologies have different capabilities in terms of spatial and temporal resolution

Also, the technologies have varying degrees of invasiveness

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