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Flashcards in Problem 1 Deck (21)
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advantages self-reports

-higher motivation to talk about oneself
-inexpensive, quick
-identification with the question
-easy to interpret
-large number of participants in short time
-direct insight unto unique personal information


disadvantages self-reports

-structure of questions affects outcome
-response biases
-people try to present themselves in a more favorable light
-acquiescent responding: agreeing with responses without considering the question
-extreme responding
-false picture of oneself


informant reports advantages

-more objective
-compare informant judgements with self-report
-compare ratings of different observers
-informants often observed individual in many different situations
-easy if used online
-no socially desirable response bias


informant reports disadvantages

-expensive, time and money
-difficult, uncooperative informants
-response biases can occur
-fundamental attribution error


Behavioral measures advantages

-situation specific traits can be assessed
-fewer response biases than with questionnaires
-2 potential settings: lab or field


Behavioral measures disadvantages

-ethical issues
-developing and assessing code schemas
-great deal of effort
-in laboratory -> too artificial
-demand characteristics
-link between specific behavior and specific characteristic may not be direct


EAR - Electronically Activated Recorder

- recorder that tracks ambient sounds in people's environment by recording 30s snippets every 12.5 min over a period of 4 days


EAR advantages

-not influenced by participants perceptions .
-attends to social phenomena that participants are typically not aware of when filling in a questionnaire
-language use can reveal psy. info about the speaker
-naturalistic settings
-determine degree of stability in people'a everyday social environment
-EAR not particularly distracting not significant impact on participants social behaviors


EAR disadvantages

-ethical and legal questions
-secondary participants: are recorded without being directly involved in the study
-data collection and preparation is time consuming and labor intensive


Biodata ( life outcome data)

-records of a person's life which seem likely to be relevant to an individual's personality
-example: cell phone bill, GPA, speeding tickets


Biodata advantage

-objective indicator


Biodata disadvantages

-particular outcome might be influenced by other traits or variety of circumstances that are unrelated to one's personality
-ethical concerns


cue validity

-how well the cues represent underlying construct
example: organizing desk -> does it present real conscientiousness?


cue utilization



mechanisms linking individuals to environments (4)

1) self directed identity claims
2) other-directed identity claims
3) interior behavioral residue
4) exterior behavioral residue


self-directed identity claims

-symbolic statements made by the occupants for their own benefits
-intended to reinforce self-view


other-directed identity claims

-symbols that have shared meanings to make statements to others about how they would like to be regarded


Interior behavioral residue

-physical traces of activities conducted in the environment
-act frequency approach to personality: someone who is high on a trait performs more acts that are prototypical of that trait


exterior behavioral residue

-residue of behaviors performed by the individual entirely outside of those immediate surroundings


Preconceptions informant reports (4)

1) time consuming
2) expensive
3) informants won't cooperate
4) Informant data are not valid


measurements for accuracy of self perceptions (3)

1) consistency with objective mesures
2) consistency with others' perceptions
3) Meta accuracy