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how to assess job performance?

-objective records of productivity:
-> number of customers served by a cashier
-> number of scientific articles published by a university professor etc

-keep track of counterproductive actions
-> latenesses, days absent etc

-supervisors'/ co-workers' evaluations
-> rating scale, ranking system
-> more subjective


conscientiousness and job performance

-positively correlated with job performance (rather modest, 0.20)


Agreeableness and job performance

-modest positive correlations with performance in customer service jobs
-related to getting along with customers


Extraversion and emotional stability

-modest positive correlations with performance in sales and managerial jobs


does conscientiousness lead to higher levels of income and of occupational status?

-studies suggest yes
-but different correlations were found


counterproductive behavior at work
a person-by-situation interaction

-high honesty-humility -> little engagement in counterproductive behavior

-low -> more counterproductive behavior
-> but only in workplaces that were very political


Proactivity and job performance

-more specific, narrowly defined personality traits could be better indicators of job performance (e.g. proactivity)
-correlated with conscientiousness and extraversion

-proactivity -> tendency to identify opportunities and to act on them, to take the initiative, and to persevere when taking on challenging tasks
-> modestly correlated with productivity levels


Integrity tests

-self-report questionnaires
-> asses potential (or current) employee's level of honesty and dependability
-> predict tendency to refrain from counterproductive behavior


2 main types of integrity tests

1) overt
-ask to indicate whether he/she has committed various dishonest acts

2) Personality-based
-similar to typical self-report personality inventories

-> higher scores on integrity tests were modestly related to better job performance, with a correlation of about .15


the problem of faking
- study tried to assess extent of faking

-comparing self-report scores of 2 groups of people
-one group: current employees, knew that responses were obtained for researcher and confidential
-other group: job applicants, knew that responses could be used by employer to decide which applicants to hire

->finding: scores of applicants were nearly one standard deviation higher for socially desirable characteristics


are scores of integrity tests meaningful if people lie?

-> differences among people in their scores are meaningful
-> reflection of their relative! levels of integrity and related traits


methods to reduce faking

-include items that ask about moral lapses that presumable everyone has committed
-time limits on applicants's responses
-use of items to indicate which of several statements describes one most accurately
-use of non-self-report methods
-proactive and reactive


problems with self -reports (2)

1) dissimulation/ faking/ lying
2) self -insight


2 types of behavior of faking/lying

1) Impression management
-> person attempts to create a good impression by leaving out information, adding untrue information

2) Self´deception
-> person, in their own view answers honestly, but what they say is untrue because they lack self-awareness


Problem of self-insight for faking/lying in self-reports

-what people cannot say about themselves even if they wanted to
-people don't know certain things about themselves


Problems with observation data

-asking participants to list people who know them well and may be called upon
-> observers have different 'data bank' (teacher/employer)
-> observers might not tell the truth


test performance

-maximum performance test (power, time, ability tests)
-typical performance test , more assessed by personality tests (preference, untimed)
-behavioral test (group performance)


Physiological Evidence

-medical checkup
-blood samples and salvia samples


Personal History/biography

-birth order
-social class
-> biodata (social media)

problems: too private, against the law, too time consuming


problems with simple selection model

-select the good, reject the bad candidates for a job

-> assumption of linearity (assumption that more is better) -> but for most jobs you need an optimal amount rather than a maximal account

-> failure to select out (actively seeking out for things that you do not want in the person being assessed


factors contributing to development in this area

-changes in law

-changes in business -> competition, concern with specific assessment-related issues, spotting and managing talent, strengthening leadership

-ideas of gurus (business writers) -> popular books highlight various concepts, issues, and methods

-recommendations of consultants/academic

-labour market shortages

-technological developments (test via computer, recruiting and testing online)

-construct-driven approach: being clear about what one is trying to assess and why


3 things led to the acceptance that personality traits do influence and predict job outcomes

1) growth of meta-analysis allowed cumulation of results across studies
2) Big5 provided framework to organize traits
3) Personality traits are relatively enduring and have genetic origin


intrinsic extrinsic successes

-conscientiousness positively correlated with both


-pros cons in personality testing
-bandwidth fidelity dilemma
-faking and social desirability
-different validities

-main part exam


cognitive and mental ability tests

-IQ is a good predictor for job performance in all domains

-no real prediction of personality
-IQ test could lead to people feel mistreated or judged unfairly (bc not relevant for the job) -> bad scores



- only when they are structured and planned you get data you can compare well
-biases (first impression etc)


why is assessing people at work important?

cost benefit analysis


job performance and personality traits

-conscientiousness -> strongest predictor
-emotional stability predicts job performance (but less)


work motivation

-emotional stability and conscientiousness -> positive correlations with work motivation


Core self-evaluations (CSE)

-higher order factor representing the fundamental evaluations people make about themselves
-> predicts job performance
-> indicated by self-esteem, locus of control, emotional stability, self-efficacy