psyc 332 ch 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in psyc 332 ch 9 Deck (21):
1

Carryover effects

Changes in the scores observed in one treatment condition that are caused by the lingering after effects of a specific earlier treatment condition

2

Complete counterbalancing

In withinsubjects designs using a separate group of participants for every possible order of the treatment conditions With n different treatment conditions there are n factorial different orders

3

Contrast effect

An example of a carryover effect in which the perception of a treatment condition is influenced by its contrast with the previous treatment

4

Counter balancing

In a withinsubjects design a procedure to minimize threats from order effects and timerelated factors by changing the order in which treatment conditions are administered from one participant to another so that the treatment conditions are matched with respect to time The goal is to use every possible order of treatments with an equal number of individuals participating in each sequence

5

Fatigue

A threat to internal validity that occurs when prior participation in a treatment condition or measurement procedure tires the participants and influences their performance on subsequent measurements; an example of a testing effect or an order effect

6

History

A threat to internal validity from any outside event that influences the participants scores in one treatment differently than in another treatment

7

Instrumentation

A threat to internal validity from changes in the measurement instrument that occur during the time a research study is being conducted Also known as instrumental bias or instrumental decay

8

Latin square

An n _ n matrix in which each of n different items appears exactly once in each column and exactly once in each row Used to identify sequences of treatment conditions for partial counterbalancing

9

Matched subjects design

A research design comparing separate groups of individuals in which each individual in one group is matched with a participant in each of the other groups The matching is done so that the matched individuals are equivalent with respect to a variable that the researcher considers to be relevant to the study

10

Maturation

A threat to internal validity from any physiological or psychological changes that occur in a participant during the time that research study is being conducted and that can influence the participants scores

11

Order effects

Whenever individuals participate in a series of treatment conditions and experience a series of measurements their behavior or performance at any point in the series may be influenced by experience that occurred earlier in the sequence Order effects include carryover effects and progressive error Also known as testing effects

12

Partial counterbalancing

A system of counterbalancing that ensures that each treatment condition occurs first for one group of participants second for one group third for one group and so on but does not require that every possible order of treatment conditions be used

13

Participant attrition

The loss of participants that occurs during the course of a research study conducted over time Attrition can be a threat to internal validity Also known as participant mortality

14

Practice

A threat to internal validity that occurs when prior participation in a treatment condition or measurement procedure provides participants with additional skills that influence their performance on subsequent measurements An example of a testing effect or an order effect

15

Progressive error

In a research study changes in the scores observed in one treatment condition that are related to general experience in a research study over time but not to a specific treatment or treatments Common kinds of progressive error are practice effects and fatigue

16

Repeated measures design

See withinsubjects design

17

Repeated measures experimental design

An experimental design in which the same group of individuals participates in all of the different treatment conditions See withinsubjects experimental design

18

Statistical regression

A statistical phenomenon in which extreme scores high or low on a first measurement tend to be less extreme on a second measurement considered a threat to internal validity because changes in participants scores could be caused by regression rather than by the treatments Also known as regression toward the mean

19

Testing effects

A threat to internal validity that occurs when participants are exposed to more than one treatment and their responses are affected by participation in an earlier treatment Examples of testing effects include fatigue and practice Also known as order effects

20

Withinsubjects design

A research design in which the different groups of scores are all obtained from the same group of participants Also known as repeatedmeasures design

21

Within subjects experimental design

An experimental design in which the same group of individuals participates in all of the different treatment conditions Also known as a repeatedmeasures experimental design