PSYC33 Chapter 3-6 vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSYC33 Chapter 3-6 vocab Deck (52):
1

Constructs

are hypothetical attributes or mechanisms that help explain and predict behavior in a theory.

2

Operational definition

is a procedure for measuring and defining a construct.

3

Validity

the validity of a measurement procedure is the degree to which the measurement process measures the variable that it claims to measure.

4

Face Validity

is an unscientific form of validity demonstrated when a measurement procedure superficially appears to measure what it claims to measure.

5

Concurrent Validity

the type of validity demonstrated when scores obtained from a new measure are directly related to scores obtained from a more established measure of the same variable.

6

Predictive validity

is demonstrated when scores obtained from a measure accurately predict behavior according to a theory.

7

Construct Validity

requires that the scores obtained from a measurement procedure behave exactly the same as the variable itself.

8

convergent Validity

is demonstrated by a strong relationship between the scores obtained form two different methods of measuring the same construct.

9

Divergent Validity

is demonstrated by using two different methods to measure two different constructs.

10

reliability

The reliability of a measurement procedure is the stability or consistency of the measurement.

11

Test-retest reliability

is established by comparing the scores obtained from two successive measurements of the same individuals and calculating a correlation between the two sets of scores.

12

Parallel forms reliability

if alternative versions of the measuring instrument are used for the two measurements

13

inter rater reliability

is the degree of agreement between two observers who simultaneously record measurements of the behaviors.

14

split half reliability

is obtained by splitting the items on a questionnaire or test in half, computing a separate score for each half, and then calculating the degree of consistency between the two scores.

15

ceiling effect

is the clustering of scores at the high end of a measurement scale

16

floor effect

is the clustering of scores at the low end of a measurement scale.

17

demand characteristics

refers to any of the potential cues or features of a study that suggest to the participants what the purpose and hypothesis is and influence the participants to respond or behave in a certain way.

18

reactivity

occurs when participants modify their natural behavior in response to the fact that they are participating in a research study or the knowledge that they are being measured.

19

informed consent

requires the investigator to provide all available information about the study so that an individual can make a rational, informed decision to participate in the study.

20

deception

occurs when a researcher purposefully withholds information or misleads participants with regard to information about a study.

21

passive deception

is the withholding or omitting of information; the researcher intentionally does not tell participants some information about the study.

22

active deception

is the presenting of misinformation about the study to participants.

23

debriefing

is a post experimental explanation of the purpose of a study that is given to a participant, especially if deception was used.

24

confidentiality

is the practice of keeping strictly secret and private the information or measurements obtained from an individual during a research study.

25

anonymity

is the practice of ensuring that an individual's name is not directly associated with the information or measurements obtained from that individual.

26

IRB

Institutional Review Board, is a committee that examines all proposed research with respect to its treatment of human participants.

27

IACUC

Institutional animal care and use committee.

28

fraud

is the explicit effort of a researcher to falsify or misrepresent data

29

replication

is repetition of a research study using the same basic procedures used in the original.

30

plagiarism

is the representation of someone else's ideas or words as one's own, and it is unethical.

31

population

is the entire set of individuals of interest to a researcher

32

sample

is a set of individuals selected from a population and usually is intended to represent the population in a research study.

33

representativeness

of a sample refers to the extent to which the characteristics of the sample accurately reflect the characteristics of the population

34

biased sample

is a sample with different characteristics from those of the population

35

selection bias or sampling bias

occurs when participants or subjects are selected in a manner that increases the probability of obtaining a biased sample.

36

Sampling

is the process of selecting individuals to participate in a research study.

37

probability sampling

the entire population is known, each individual in the population has specifiable probability of selection, and sampling occurs by a random process based on the probabilities

38

random process

is a procedure that produces one outcome from a set of possible outcomes.

39

non probability sampling

the population is not completely known, individual probabilities cannot be known, and the sampling method is based on factors such as common sense or ease, with an effort to maintain representativeness and avoid bias.

40

Quantitative research

is based on measuring variables for individual participants to obtain scores, usually numerical values, that are submitted to statistical analysis for summary and interpretation.

41

Qualitative research

is based on making observations that are summarized and interpreted in a narrative report.

42

research strategy

is a general approach to research determined by the kind of question that the research study hopes to answer

43

validity

of a research study is the degree to which the study accurately answers the question it was intended to answer

44

external validity

refers to the extent to which we can generalize the results of a research study to people, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than those used in that study.

45

internal validity

a research study has internal validity if it produces a single, unambiguous explanation of the relationship between two variables.

46

extraneous variable

any variable in a research study other than the specific variables being studied is an extraneous variable.

47

confounding variable

is an extraneous variable that changes systematically along with the two variables being studied.

48

assignment bias

occurs when the process used to assign different participants to different treatments produces groups of individuals with noticeably different characteristics.

49

maturation

When a group of individuals is being tested in a series of treatment condition, any physiological or psychological changes that occurs in participants during the study and influences the participants scores.

50

testing effects or order effects

occur when the experience of being tested in one treatment condition has an influence on the participants' scores in a later treatment condition.

51

statistical regression or regression toward the mean

is a mathematical phenomenon in which extreme scores (high or low) on one measurement tend to be less extreme on a second measurement.

52

research design

is a general plan for implementing a research strategy.