psyc 332 ch 9 rev Flashcards Preview

PSYC 332 Experimental PSYC > psyc 332 ch 9 rev > Flashcards

Flashcards in psyc 332 ch 9 rev Deck (21):
1

Changes in the scores observed in one treatment condition that are caused by the lingering after effects of a specific earlier treatment condition

Carryover effects

2

In withinsubjects designs using a separate group of participants for every possible order of the treatment conditions With n different treatment conditions there are n factorial different orders

Complete counterbalancing

3

An example of a carryover effect in which the perception of a treatment condition is influenced by its contrast with the previous treatment

Contrast effect

4

In a withinsubjects design a procedure to minimize threats from order effects and timerelated factors by changing the order in which treatment conditions are administered from one participant to another so that the treatment conditions are matched with respect to time The goal is to use every possible order of treatments with an equal number of individuals participating in each sequence

Counter balancing

5

A threat to internal validity that occurs when prior participation in a treatment condition or measurement procedure tires the participants and influences their performance on subsequent measurements; an example of a testing effect or an order effect

Fatigue

6

A threat to internal validity from any outside event that influences the participants scores in one treatment differently than in another treatment

History

7

A threat to internal validity from changes in the measurement instrument that occur during the time a research study is being conducted Also known as instrumental bias or instrumental decay

Instrumentation

8

An n _ n matrix in which each of n different items appears exactly once in each column and exactly once in each row Used to identify sequences of treatment conditions for partial counterbalancing

Latin square

9

A research design comparing separate groups of individuals in which each individual in one group is matched with a participant in each of the other groups The matching is done so that the matched individuals are equivalent with respect to a variable that the researcher considers to be relevant to the study

Matched subjects design

10

A threat to internal validity from any physiological or psychological changes that occur in a participant during the time that research study is being conducted and that can influence the participants scores

Maturation

11

Whenever individuals participate in a series of treatment conditions and experience a series of measurements their behavior or performance at any point in the series may be influenced by experience that occurred earlier in the sequence Order effects include carryover effects and progressive error Also known as testing effects

Order effects

12

A system of counterbalancing that ensures that each treatment condition occurs first for one group of participants second for one group third for one group and so on but does not require that every possible order of treatment conditions be used

Partial counterbalancing

13

The loss of participants that occurs during the course of a research study conducted over time Attrition can be a threat to internal validity Also known as participant mortality

Participant attrition

14

A threat to internal validity that occurs when prior participation in a treatment condition or measurement procedure provides participants with additional skills that influence their performance on subsequent measurements An example of a testing effect or an order effect

Practice

15

In a research study changes in the scores observed in one treatment condition that are related to general experience in a research study over time but not to a specific treatment or treatments Common kinds of progressive error are practice effects and fatigue

Progressive error

16

See withinsubjects design

Repeated measures design

17

An experimental design in which the same group of individuals participates in all of the different treatment conditions See withinsubjects experimental design

Repeated measures experimental design

18

A statistical phenomenon in which extreme scores high or low on a first measurement tend to be less extreme on a second measurement considered a threat to internal validity because changes in participants scores could be caused by regression rather than by the treatments Also known as regression toward the mean

Statistical regression

19

A threat to internal validity that occurs when participants are exposed to more than one treatment and their responses are affected by participation in an earlier treatment Examples of testing effects include fatigue and practice Also known as order effects

Testing effects

20

A research design in which the different groups of scores are all obtained from the same group of participants Also known as repeatedmeasures design

Withinsubjects design

21

An experimental design in which the same group of individuals participates in all of the different treatment conditions Also known as a repeatedmeasures experimental design

Within subjects experimental design