Psychology of Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology of Personality Deck (16):
1

Personality

- Characteristic ways in which we think, feel and behave

- relatively unchanging psychological characteristics & behaviours

2

Psychoanalytic theory

- Freud

- ID: Primitive part and maximises pleasure,
-> is irrational, impulsive, self serving, unconscious

- Ego: Sets standards of behaviour
-> Directs the ID into the real world

- Superego: Voice of conscious and how we should behave
-> leads to positive and negative feelings


Contributions:
- Explains how personality differences occur through development
- Can explain how ppl with different personality types behave
- Explain defense mechanism and why people react differently to situations


Limitations:
- Not falsifiable
- failed to inc. impact of environment
- Lack empirical evidence
- Lacks consideration of culture

3

- Fixation

: an emotional hangup, caused by frustration / over indulgence

4

Humanistic Theories

- Based on assumption people are basically good
- Personality is a result of people trying to achieve their potential
- People grow from within and are motivated

5

Maslow

- Hierachy of needs
- Gratification needs to be reached before preson moves up to nxt level

- Self actualisation:
-> Divine growth,
-> People are rare
-> Self aware, independent, self acceptance, creative

6

Rogers

- people are naturally good
- An innate drive to maintain and enhance self
- People are healthy psychologically, flexible self concept and open to new experiences


- Contributions:
-> Explain different traits that make people all human
-> People want the same needs and wants
-> People's personality change after they acquire certain levels
-> Can understand individual differences


Limitations:
-> Concepts too vague, difficult to investigate
-> Theory is optimistic, no evil taken into acc.
-> Not all people motivated for personal growth
-> Can't be tested scientifically

7

Fully functioning Person

- Unconditional, positive regard

8

Trait Theories

- Categorise people on more than 1 dimension
- Can understand people's individuality

9

Traits

Unique and enduring characteristics that predispose them to behave in certain ways

- identified, measured and described

10

Surface Traits

- Easily inferred from behaviour
- Superficial

11

Source Traits

- Fundamental
- Represents the basic dimensions of personality

12

Eyesenck Personality Definition

Defined personality as more or less stable

- An enduring organisation of a person's character, temperament, intellect and physique that determines their unique adjustment to the environment.

13

- Eyesenck Four Personality types

-> Introverted - neurotic (moody, anxious)

-> Extraverted - neurotic ( aggressive, impulsive)

-> Extraverted - stable (talkative, outgoing)

-> Introverted - stable ( passive, controlled)

14

Mcrae and Costa

- Big Five Traits

- OCEAN
-> Openness to Experience
-> Conscientiousness
-> Extraversion
-> Agreeableness
-> Neuroticism

15

Allport

- Developed 4500 trait like words and then analysed and grouped them

- Behavioural genetics:
-> studies of identicial twins
-> shows that genetics play a part in our personality and environment

Contributions:
-> Traits are stable, enduring characteristics
-> Testable theories
-> Widely accepted in psych.
-> Increased the growing research on the biological bases of behaviour

Limitations:
-> Traits are not personality
-> Does not tell us about nature / differences in personality
-> Does not take into account unconscious processes

16

All port Traits

-> Common Traits: characteristics shared by most of a culture
-> Individual Traits: define a person's unique personal qualities
-> Cardinal Traits: Have a significant effect on everything we do.
-> Central Traits: The building blocks of personality
-> Secondary Traits: The superficial aspect of a person