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Flashcards in 3B Society: Culture Deck (12):


- Depends on 5 things:
-> Behaviour that is acceptable for the time and place
-> Behaviour that allows a person to function independently
-> Situationally appropriate
-> Does not have a medical diagnosis
-> Statistical average



- Having dysfunctional thoughts, feelings and behaviours that interfere with everyday life
- Impedes a persons ability to look after themselves

- Psychologists have theories that can differentiate b/w normal and abnormal in relation to physical and mental development.

- Mental Development requires assessment of peoples personality, thoughts and feelings to gain insight into what is causing odd behaviours


Cultural Influences on mental health

- Beliefs about abnormalities differ b/w cultures and sub cultures

- Cultural relativism: principle that an individual human's belief and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individuals own cultures

- What is considered normal in 1 may be seen as abnormal in another

- Based on different cultures

- Differences in ways people experience mental disorders
-> Some groups and sub cultures value showing emotions
-> Others emphasize containment


Western Cultures On mental health

- Makes a number of assumptions about psychological states
-> Physical and psychological components of a disorder are separate
-> emotional aspects given primacy
-> Mental illness caused by psychological conditions, can be treated by psychological processes
-> An individual self exists which is experienced as whole, continous over time, distinct and unique

- Values and stress have created more and different disorders in Western societies

- Eating disorders in Western countries

- High suicide rates in Japan


Preventing Mental Health Problems

- Can prevent mental health by:
-> collecting data on prevalence of mental health
-> developing and delivering programs
-> assessing the psychological needs and functions of people at risk of dev.

- Young people are more at risk developing mental health problems

- Australian government has:
-> promoting young people's wellbeing
-> Preventing mental health problems
-> Intervening early with diagnosis
-> Supporting young people in crisis
-> Supporting the management of people w/ mental health problems


Treating Mental Health Problems

- Psychologists treat people with:
-> serious mental health issues
-> Personality disorders
-> Health problems e.g depression, anxiety, phobias

- Work with individuals, couples families and groups.


Cognitive Behaviour Theory

- Changes a person's dysfunctional thoughts, beliefs, feelings and behaviours into those that are more helpful.

- Used to treat schizophrenia (limited success), reduces symptoms, used with medication

- Used to treat depression, changes negative thoughts to positive thoughts

- Thinking can change behaviour

- Helps identify and change negative thinking associated with depressed feelings

- Focus on the positive things

- Helps manage the person's problems

- Regular appointments that become less frequent over time


Psychodynamic Theory

- Insight orientated therapy

- Focuses on unconscious processes as they are manifested in a person's present behaviour

- Goal is to increase a client's self-awareness and understanding of the influence of the past on present behaviour

- Based on the assumption that all mental disorders are caused by unresolved psychological conflicts that occur in the unconscious part of the mind.

- Expect clients w/ depression to gain awareness of losts in their lives, cope w/ losses more effectively and make corresponding changes in their functions

- Enables clients to examine unresolved conflicts and symptoms that arise from past dysfunctional relationships

- Can see how they manifest themselves in the need and desire to abuse substances

- 2 years


Differences Between Psychodynamic and CBT

- Duration
-> CBT is 8-12
-> Psycho is several years

Degree of structure
-> CBT has set plans and goals for each session
-> Psycho is not focused, depends on what the person feels like

Focus on Present Vs Past
-> CBT focus on present time thoughts and behaviours to change and be more adaptive
-> Psycho is focused on past exp.

Role of Therapist
-> CBT relationship w/ therapist is considered important for success
-> Psychodynamic, clients relationship w/ therapist is a specific focus of the therapy

Use of Homework
-> Homework activities practiced is central to CBT to learn new skills and behav.
-> Not used by psycho


Reducing Stigma of Mental illness

-> Being marked different from others

Mental Illness:
-> Impaired functioning socially and emotionally
-> Made waste by stigma and confusion around mental illness

People w/ Mental illness and Disability
-> Requires support and assistance in living and working in community

Reducing Stigma
-> Changing the communities negative attitude towards these people and families


Reducing Stigma of Mental Illness and Disability

- Reduce stigmatization and discrimination

-> promote good mental health
-> Prevent dev. of mental disease
-> Provide support
-> Early intervention for mental illness
-> Early support for disability


Intellectual Disability

- IQ lower than 70
- Diagnosed before age of 18
- Generally need support for daily activities
- Caused by genetic factors / physical factors at birth