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Flashcards in 3A Self Deck (24):

Developmental Psychology

Classics in field as they provided the beginning basis of understanding


Piaget Theory - Adaption

- Adaption
-> Continuous process of using the environment to learn
-> Learning to adjust to changes in the environment


Piaget Theory - Assimilation

- Assimilation
-> Process of taking in new information, fitting it into and making it part of an existing mental idea about objects or the world.

-> Making sense of new information by applying it to existing knowledge


Piaget Theory - Accommodation

- Accommodation
-> Advanced process
-> Changing an existing mental idea in order to fit in new information


Piaget Theory - Schema

- Schema
-> Organised mental representation of what something is and how to deal with it


Piaget 4 Stages of Cognitive Development

- Sensorimotor
- Pre-operational stage
- Concrete operational stage
- Formal Operational Stage


Object Permanence

Understanding that objects still exist even if they can not be seen or touched


Goal-orientated behaviour

- Behaviour carried out with a particular purpose in mind

e.g. reaching the table to collect things


Sensorimotor Stage - Piaget

-> Birth- 2 years
-> Infants construct the understandings of their world by co-ordinating sensory experiences with motor abilities
-> Learn object permanence
-> Goal orientated behaviour


Pre-Operational Stage - Piaget

- 2-7 years
-> Increasingly able to internally represent events

- Ego Centrism
-> Children have difficulty seeing from another person's perspective

- Animism
-> Belief that everything which exists has some kind of consciousness or awareness

- Transformation
-> Smoething can transform from one state to another

- Centration
-> Child can only focus on one quality or feature at a time

- Reversibility
-> Ability to follow a line of reasoning back to original starting point


Concrete Operational Stage

- Revolves around what the child know and that they can experience through their senses

- Conservation
-> Object does not change its weight, mass, volume or area when object changes appearance

- Classification
-> Ability to organise information into categories based on common featuers that sets them apart from other categories

- 7 to 12 years old


Formal Operational Stage

- 12 years and over
-> Complex thought processes become evident and thinking becomes increasingly sophisticated

- Abstract thinking

- Logical Thinking


Abstract Thinking

- A way of thinking that does not rely on being able to see or visualise things in order to understand concepts


Logical Thinking

- Able to develop strategies to solve problems
- Identify range of solutions
- Develop hypothesis
- Systematically test solutions


Piaget Criticisms Overall

- Underestimated young minds
- Fail to distinguish b/w competence and performance

- Little emphasis on how children's minds develop through interactions w/ others


Piaget Contributions

- Emphasized children are active
- Construct understandings through interactions w/ the world
- Develop from concrete to abstract thinking and reasoning

As they develop -> less ego centric, think systematically, reason abstractly


Follow up studies On Piaget: Donaldson and McGarrigle

- Show that children as young as 4 could conserve number if situation is given meaning

- Also important to note that Piaget concentrates entirely on mathematical skill and logic

Tests conservation of 6 year olds
-> Humans messed up 2 rows, 16% can identify
-> Bears mess up 2 rows, 62% can identify

Shows that children are better able to conserve than Piaget proposed


Follow Up Studies on Piaget: Siegal and Gilligan

- Problems arose when experimenter asks questions where the answer is obvious
- or repeat question when answer is given

- Answer is changed maybe to:
-> Please experimenter
-> Makes child rethink answer due to repeating Q

-> Piaget assumed if child failed cognitive task, lacked competence.
-> Many factors can affect whether a person successfully performs a task
-> Results in follow up studies changing the way that the question is being asked.


Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development

- Universal sequence to the dev of morality

-> Morality : Principle concerning the distinction of right and wrong
- Found stages based on children's responses to various moral dilemmas
-> Dilemmas focus on value of human life.


Stages of Kohlberg's Theory Level 1

- Level 1: Pre-conventional ( up to 9 years)

-> Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Egocentric
--> Does not recognise different POV

- Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
-> Aware of different interests and that these may conflict
-> Instrumental exchange of services, goodwil and fairness


Stages of Kohlberg's Theory LEVEL 2

- Level 2: Conventional ( 10 to adolescence)

-> Stage 3: Interpersonal expectations, conformity and relationships
-> Following rules, living up to expectations of others, maintaing trust, gratitude, respect.

-> Stage 4: Authority and social order
-> Doing ones duty
-> Uphold social order
-> Take the view of the system


Stages of Kohlberg's Theory LEVEL 3

- Level 3 Post conventional (Adulthood)

-> Stage 5: Social contract Orientation
-> Asserting and integrating basic rights, values, legal contracts

-> Stage 6: Universal ethical principles and morals orientation
-> Commitment to the universal principles of justice
-> Respect for others

Kohlberg based stages on children's responses to various moral dilemmas
-> Considered that stages occur in the same sequence throughout the world.


Kohlberg Criticism

- Centred around only male participants
- Choice of dilemmas were western views of moral development.

Shweder (1991)
-> Moral development systems did not follow reasoning form other cultures due to western bias
-> Theory is cross-sectional / not longitudinal
-> Doesn't allow assessment of moral reasoning over-time.


Kohlberg Contributions

- Gilligan (1982)
-> Difference b/w genders w/ regards to moral decision making
-> Was due to socialisation of the genders
-> Found that men focus more on justice
-> Women focus more on caring when answering q about moral development.

-> Males are achievement orientated, independent
-> Women are socially responsible, nurturing.

-> Found that females had 3 different levels of reasoning:
-> level 1: self interest
-> level 2: self sacrifice
-> level 3: care as a universal obligation