Psychostimulants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychostimulants Deck (11):
0

What are psychomotor stimulants?

Amphetamine, cocaine, mdma, caffeine
Increase behavioural and motor activity
Increase in alertness and disruption of sleep
Pupil dilation
Increase body temp
Anxiety, insomnia, irritability

1

What are psychomometics

Lsd, mescaline, psilocybin, cannabinoids
Induce temporary states of altered perception
Symptoms similar to psychosis
Clearly percieved, vivid and subjective experiences
Control diminished

2

Nikethamide

Respiratory stimulant acting directly in the respiratory centred of the brain

3

Oxilofrine

Another stimulant used by atheletes

4

What is caffeine metabolised into?

Paraxanthine, increases lipolysis leading to elevated glycerol and ffas in blood plasma
Theobromine, dilates blood vessels, increases urine volume
Theophyline, relaxes smooth muscles in the bronchi

5

How does caffeine work?

Similar in structure to adenosine
Acts as an antagonist on a2a gs and a1 gi receptors

6

Role of a1 receptors

Presynaptic neurones mediate the inhibition exerted by adenosine on the release of nt (including glutamate, da and ach)
This is thought to account for positive effect produced by caffeine on arousal, vigilance and attention

7

Where are adenosine receptors found?

Neocortex, amygdala, substantia nigra, nuc tractus solitarus, sc, cerebellum, hippo, thal

8

Role of nicotine

Acts on presynaptic nicotinergic cholinergic receptors
Releases da, na, ach, glutamate, 5ht, beta-endorphin, gaba

Pleasure, appetite suppression, arousal, cog enhance, memory enhanc

9

Strychnine

In small doses improves visual and auditory acuity.
Larger doses violent extensor spasms and convulsions
Eventually death by asphyxia

Blocks receptors for glycine, no cl- increase postsynaptic neuron

10

Amphetamine

Release of da and na from presynaptic storage sites
Binds to presynaptic membrane of da neurones
Changes ph, leading to da containing vesicles releasing contents into cleft