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Block 3; Week 7 > Puberty & Growth > Flashcards

Flashcards in Puberty & Growth Deck (69)
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1

From an endocrine perspective, why are visual changes so significant?

b/c when you have a hypothalamic tumor-->can put pressure on the optic chasm just ventral to it.

2

What stimulates GH release? What is the pathway after that?

GHRH stimulates GH release from the pituitary gland. GH goes to the liver. It releases IGF-1. This causes bone growth & muscle growth & inhibits further GH release.

3

Is IGF-1 made anywhere other than the liver?

Not really...

4

What is the most important IGF for a child's growth?

IGF-BP3

5

With children w/ fetal alcohol syndrome...you have problems w/ which hormone?

GH

6

What is the growth rate in the prenatal period? When does it peak?

1.2-2.5 cm/week
Peaks @ midgestation

7

Which hormones have a minor effect on prenatal growth? Which hormones have a major effect?

Minor effect: GH & T4
Major Effect: IGF-1 & maternal factors

8

In infancy & toddlerhood...how fast do you grow? What is the influence of GH & T4 @ that point?

15-25 cm/year
Now, GH & T4 have a strong influence

9

In childhood, what is the usual growth rate? What are the things that affect this?

5-7 cm/year
hormones
genetics
nutrition

10

During puberty, what is the potential growth rate? What are the main effectors of this?

Up to 15 cm/ year
HORMONES

11

The peak growth year for the male happens @ what age?

13.5 on average

12

What are the normal factors that influence growth?

Hormones
GI abnormalities can stunt
Genetics
Nutrition
Environment

13

Which hormones mainly influence growth?

GH
thyroid hormones
cortisol
pubertal hormones

14

Which types of GI abnormalities could stunt growth?

Celiac Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Pancreatic Insufficiency

15

What types of genetic things can influence growth?

Parents' height
Parents' puberty

16

What are some environmental stressors that can affect growth?

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
drug exposure
ADD & meds
Steroids
Stress

17

Without GI complaints, how can Celiac sometimes be diagnosed in children?

kids with short stature...not sufficiently absorbed.

18

So if you want your kid to be 6'5''can you just give them a bunch of growth hormone?

NO. It is about genetics. Not all about GH.

19

If the dad was a late bloomer...what does that mean to the height of the kid?

If son...probably will be a late bloomer.
If mom were late bloomer--daughter probably would be. Sometimes there is also some crossover.

20

How would ADD meds affect growth?

These are appetite suppressing drugs. This can stunt growth.

21

What is the equation for mid-parental height for females?

Predicted Height = [Maternal Height + (Parental Height - 13 cm)]/2

22

What is the equation for mid-parental height for males?

Predicted Height = [(Maternal Height + 13 cm) + Parental Height]/2

23

What variance off of the mid-parental height is worrisome?

11/2 standard deviations from the mid-parental height
**could be stunted growth or just a late bloomer

24

What is the average difference in the heights of men & women?

13 cm or about 6 inches

25

How do you deal w/ heights of parents & child on a growth chart?

If it is a boy...
Plot mom's height + 13 cm on the chart. Determine the percentile: maybe 70th.
Plot dad's height on the chart. Determine the percentile: maybe 90th.
Take the average.
1-1.5 standard deviations from this is the potential.

26

Which things are charted on a growth chart?

Height
Weight
Head Circumference

27

If someone is under severe distress, which is the last to be altered: height, weight, head circumference?

head circumference is the last to go...

28

What is the effect of hormone deficiencies on head circumference?

Doesn't affect it!
only brain development, neurological issues, genetic issues affect head circumference.

29

Bone age isn't reliable until which age?

3 years of age

30

If weight is more affected than height on the growth chart, then what is likely the cause of the problem?

GI/nutritional
OR renal/metabolic

31

If height is more affected than weight on the growth chart, then what is likely the cause of the problem?

Endocrine
OR renal/metabolic

32

With younger kids, what is the proper way to measure their height?

By having them lay down...put them in this contraption w/ metal pieces on both sides. Requires 2 people to hold them down.
Do 3 times & take average.

33

With older kids, what is the proper way to measure their height?

Don't use a scale!
There is a metal wall-mounted stadiometer
Behind & feet should touch the wall. Chin up.
Take 3 times & average.

34

T/F There is only one growth chart that is used for children or adults.

FALSE
There are different growth charts for different ethnicities & different conditions.

35

What is the most helpful determining factor w/ height potential?

bone age

36

What is constitutional delay of growth & puberty?

short stature
normal growth velocity
normal predicted mid-parental heigh
bone age 2 years behind
usu b/c of delayed puberty

37

What is the incidence of constitutional delay of growth & puberty in men & women?

Men: 1/75000
Women: 1/50000

38

When does puberty generally start in men & women? At which ages is it considered delayed if puberty doesn't begin?

Usually Starts:
Age 10 for women; Age 12 for men
**this bone age indicates the beginning of puberty usu...
Delayed if:
No puberty by age 13 for women; Age 14 for men

39

What is the progression of signs of puberty in females? In males?

Females:
Moodiness
Breast Growth
Pubic Hair

Males:
Increase in testicular volume (4-5cc)
Pubic Hair

40

When might you think: this kid is experiencing short stature b/c of meds, GI, syndromes, endocrine issues or something?

When growth velocity is abnormal, or the predicted height is abnormal.

41

What are 4 syndromes that you sometimes have to consider for short stature?

Turner
Noonan
Russell-Silver
Cushing's Syndrome

42

What are some endocrine issues that could cause a short stature?

Hypothyroidism
Growth Hormone Deficiency
Adrenal Insufficiency
Adrenal Hyperplasia
Hypopituitarism
LH/FSH Deficiencies
Kallman's

43

What is the most common isolated pituitary hormone deficiency?

GH

44

What are the effects that you see in GH deficiency?

Low IGF-1 & BP-3
Slow Growth Velocity
Bone Age Delay
Hypoglycemia
Fatigue
Slow Mentation

45

What are other common isolated pituitary hormone deficiencies?

LH
ACTH

46

Which hormones control blood sugar in a growing kid?

GH
Cortisol

47

What are 3 things that might indicate that you have a pituitary problem, specifically hypopituitarism?

Microphallus
Jaundice
Hypoglycemia

48

If IGF-1 is low & BP-3 is fine...what are we thinking?

The kid is probably fine, probably just a little stressed.

49

What is a single central incisor & midline facial hypoplasia indicative of?

Hypopituitarism.

50

What causes diabetes insipidus?

lack of ADH, secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.

51

What are the signs/symptoms of hypopituitarism?

neonatal hypoglycemia
jaundice
microphallus
poor growth
delayed puberty
fatigue
constipation
polyuria
polydipsia
developmental delay
changes in appetite
sleeping problems
Diabetes Insipidus
septo-optic dysplasia
midline defects
single central incisor
Low Free T4 w/ normal TSH
Low IGF-1, BP-3

52

If you have a low free T4...how can you differentiate b/w hypothyroidism & hypopituitarism?

Hypothyroidism: Low Free T4 & Super High TSH
Hypopituiarism: Low Free T4 & Slightly Elevated TSH (it is trying to compensate).

53

With any chromosomal abnormalities...what do you have a higher chance of?

Celiac
Hypothyroidism

54

What is the incidence of Turner's syndrome? What percentage of fetuses w/ Turner's syndrome are spontaneously aborted? When should you consider Turner's?

1/25000
95% fetuses spontaneously aborted

Should consider w/ any short female.

55

A Turner's syndrome patient with more Xs will exhibit what characteristic?

She will be taller.

56

What are major signs of Turner's Syndrome?

Short Stature
Cardiac Problems: coarctation of the aorta, aortic dilation, bicuspid aortic valve
Renal Problems: Horseshoe kidneys, duplicated collecting system, agenesis
Hypothyroidism
Celiac Disease
Diabetes
Constant UTIs

57

What are the signs & symptoms of Russell-Silver Syndrome?

Short Stature
Macrocephaly
Micrognathia
Asymmetric Limbs
Precocious Puberty
Scoliosis
Failure to Thrive
Infantile Hypoglycemia
Triangular Face
Large Forehead
Tiny Mouth

58

What's the deal w/ Noonan's Syndrome?

You get right-sided cardiac defects
neck webbing
hypogonadism
low set ears
**male turner's syndrome
**females can also get it.

59

What is the treatment for Russell-Silver Syndrome?

a lot of nutrition & sometimes GH

60

What's the deal w/ Prader-Willis Syndrome?

failure to thrive
hypotonia as an infant
excessive weight gain-->sometimes extreme obesity
Type II Diabetes
Almond-shaped eyes
Pulmonary HTN

61

Would GH be a good treatment plan for someone with Prader-Willis syndrome?

No, would exacerbate the problem.

62

While Cushing's syndrome is very rare, what is the most common cause of these symptoms?

exogenous steroid use

63

What are the signs/symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?

Short Stature
Rapid Weight Gain: stretch marks (striae), buffalo hump
Hypertension
Delayed Puberty

64

What are some tests that should be done if you suspect Cushing's Syndrome?

Salivary Cortisol
AM Cortisol
ACTH
24 hour free urine cortisol
Dexamethasone suppression test

65

What is an example of an oral steroid? What is an example of an inhaled steroid?

Oral: prednisone
Inhaled: glucocorticoids for asthma treatment

66

What are some good reasons to refer out a patient to an endocrine specialist?

Signs of pituitary deficiency: microphallus, jaundice, neonatal hypoglycemia
Growth Hormone Deficiency
Abnormal Body Proportion
Child farther than 1.5 standard deviations from their predicted height...
Abnormally fast or slow growth
Persistent growth velocity less than 10th percentile & greater than 95th percentile.

67

What are some syndromes/diseases that can cause an abnormally tall stature?

Marfan's
Soto's
Klinefelter's

68

What are 2 endocrine problems that could cause abnormally tall stature?

GH secreting tumor
Hyperthyroidism

69

What does exogenous obesity do to growth?

It makes you grow faster & taller & hit puberty earlier.
Sometimes, actually, boys w/ exogenous obesity hit puberty later.