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Block 3; Week 7 > Highison--Male Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Highison--Male Reproduction Deck (85)
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1

What temperature is the scrotum at? How is this achieved?

35 degrees
outside of the central body
countercurrent heat exchange via pampiniform plexus

2

What are the 2 functions of the testis?

Endocrine Function--Steroidogenesis (Testosterone)
Exocrine Function--Gametogenesis (spermatozoa)

3

There is a space that separates the outer & the inner sections of the scrotum...what are the layers of the inner section? Outside-->Inside

Space
Mesothelial Cells
Visceral Layer of Tunica Vaginalis
tunica albuginea (CT)
tunica vasculosa
Seminiferous Tubules

4

There is a space that separates the outer & the inner sections of the scrotum...what are the layers of the outer section? Outside-->Inside

Epidermis of Scrotum
Probably Dermis (skin that contains hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands)
Dartos Muscle
Colles' Fascia
Parietal Layer of Tunica Vaginalis
Mesothelial Cells
Space

5

What are the 2 types of epithelium in seminiferous tubules?

Spermatogenic Epithelium
Sertoli Cells

6

Starting @ epithelium & going to the outside...what are the layers?

Epithelium
Basement Membrane
CT sheath: w/ blood vessels, lymphatics, myoepithelial cells

7

What are the cells found in the interstitium b/w the seminiferous tubules?

Interstitial Cells
**Leydig cells-->testosterone

8

What is the state of seminiferous tubules before puberty?

solid in cross section, not yet the site of spermatogenesis.

9

Describe spermatogenesis.

occurs in waves in the seminiferous tubules, called cycles, can happen b/c of intercellular bridges

10

What are the 3 phase of spermatogenesis? How long does this process take in a human?

74 days
Phase I: Spermatocytogenesis
Phase II: Meiosis
Phase III: Spermiogenesis

11

Which 2 things are needed for testosterone production?

LH & prolactin

12

Which 2 things are needed for spermatogenesis?

FSH
Testosterone

13

Where do spermatogonia stem cells come from?

from the yolk sac

14

Primary spermatocyte goes to ____ _____ via ______. Primary spermatocytes are Haploid or diploid?

Primary spermatocyte goes to secondary spermatocyte via Meiosis I. Diploid.

15

Secondary Spermatocyte goes to ____ via ____. Secondary spermatocytes are Haploid or Diploid?

Secondary spermatocyte-->spermatids via Meisosis II. Haploid

16

What does spermiogenesis do?

It turns spermatids-->spermatozoa
**cytodifferentiation phase

17

What are the 3 morphological phases of spermiogenesis?

Golgi Phase
Cap Phase/Acrosomal Phase
Maturation Phase

18

In the cap phase/acrosomal phase-->what is formed? Which enzymes are used?

acrosomal cap & acrosome
hyaluronidase
neuraminidase
acid phosphatase
proteases

19

What happens to the cell during the maturation phase?

nucleus is flattened
more mitochondria
elongation of the cell
loss of excess cytoplasm

20

Describe the mobility of the spermatozoa upon release by seminiferous tubules.

They are immobile.
Once they reach the epididymis they gain motility.
They can't fertilize until they undergo capacitation in the oviducts. Their glycocalyx is replaced.

21

T/F All Sertoli cells are continuous.

TRUE, connected by jcnl complex.

22

Sertoli cells possess which receptors? Which process do they control?

Spermiogenesis, third phase of spermatogenesis
FSH receptors

23

Sertoli cells are the primary targets of which 2 hormones?

Testosterone
Androgens

24

The jcnl complexes b/w Sertoli cells create a barrier...what is the significance of this?

Blood-Testis Barrier
Adluminal & Basal compartments established

25

What are the functions of the blood-testis barrier?

protects against the autoimmune response
protects against drugs, toxic chemicals

26

What is the effect of FSH stimulating Sertoli cells?

It releases ABP & this concentrates the testosterone in the seminiferous tubules.

27

What are the things that are released from Sertoli cells?

Inhibin
ABP
Anti-Mullerian hormone
Testicular Fluid
testicular Transferrin
Plasminogen Activator

28

Are Sertoli cells involved in phagocytosis?

yes, it phagocytizes excess material from spermatogenesis.

29

Anti-mullerian hormone gets rid of paramesonephric ducts. What does this prevent?

regression of female uterine tubes, uterus, upper vagina

30

The early sperm found in the basal compartment have how many chromosomes?

46 chromosomes