Quality Terminology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quality Terminology Deck (61):
1

Upper Specification Limit

Is the maximum value used to determine if a process is within specification.

2

Upper Control Limit

Is the maximum value used to determine if a process is within control.

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Lower Control Limit

Is the minimum value used to determine if -a process is within control.

4

Lower Specification Limit

Is the minimum value used to determine if a process is within specification .

5

Mean

The average value in a measurement of a population

6

Rolled throughput yield (RTY)

Is the probability or likelihood, measured in percentage, of a unit going through a process with no defects.

7

Benchmarking

The comparison of a current product to industry standards or past standards to attain a measurement or baseline

8

Brainstorming

A data-generating technique which includes team members or subject matter experts for the purpose of solving project problems, identifying project risk , and planning-related activities

9

Common Cause

A predictable source of variation in a system

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Conformance

Creation and delivery of a product that has met the specified requirements and conformance (or functionality) of use

11

Conformance to Requirement

The point where the project and product meet the standards of the written specifications defined at project inception (or modified through change control)

12

Control Chart

A graph of data that shows the measurement of a process over elapsed time

13

Control Limits

The area of measurement three standard deviations (or Sigma) from the mean on a control chart

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Corrective Action

Action taken to bring project in line with the project management plan

15

Cost of Nonconformance

Cost associated with not meeting quality expectations of the project or product

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Cost of Quality (COQ) (Technique)

Cost of conformance to requirements and non-conformance

17

Defect

A problem or error in the creation of the work of the project

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Defect Repair

The process of correcting or improving an error in the creation of the project

19

Design of Experiments (DOE)

A process that examines which variables have the greatest outcome on a process or product

20

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)

A process that analyzes every failure mode in every piece of a product- The analysis is then reviewed for impact on every aspect of the system.

21

Features

The characteristics that the user desires built into a product

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Fishbone Diagrams (Ishikawa Diagrams)

Diagrams that break down possible areas for failure in a process and allow analysis of impact for the area; sometimes considered an ideal tool for root cause analysis

23

Fitness for Use

A product that can be used as it was intended when designed

24

Flowcharting (Technique)

A decomposition approach to breaking a system or process into block steps that can be repeated by following the diagram

25

Flowcharts

Diagrams that display the connectivity of pieces of a system

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Grade

A ranking to classify products that have different functions or features

27

Influence Diagram

A graphical representation of causal influences

28

Inspection (Technique)

Evaluating something created to ensure it meets the desired standards for use and conforms to requirements

29

Ishikawa Diagrams

Diagrams that break down possible areas for failure in a process and allow analysis of impact for the area; sometimes considered an ideal tool for root cause analysis. Also known as fishbone diagrams

30

ISO 9000

Developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as a means to plan , control, and document processes, and overall improve quality

31

Kaizen

A technique that takes a proactive stance to process development, one that makes improvements throughout a process as time evolves

32

Normal Distribution

A bell-shaped curve that is in sync with the mean of the population

33

Parametric Estimating

An estimating technique that utilizes historical or industry data to create estimates based on parameters such as a per unit or size variable

34

Pareto Analysis

Identification of the few problems that have the most occurrence on a measurement in a system/project, etc.

35

Pareto Chart (Tool)

A histogram that allows prioritization of problem areas on a project, system, etc.

36

Perform Quality Assurance

The periodic analysis of project performance to verify that the project will meet the applicable quality standards

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Perform Quality Control

Observe project results to verify they meet the applicable quality standards while attempting to improve overall quality

38

Performance

The level of success at which a product performs its intended use

39

Plan Quality

Identification of applicable quality standards and how to attain them on the project or product

40

Population

The entire group of similar criteria (Ex: All Americans, all owners of a particular product)

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Prevention Cost

Cost of planning and executing a project within an acceptable range of error (or error free)

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Procedure

A set of activities completed in a certain order to accomplish a desired objective

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Process

A set of activities completed in a certain order to create a product, result, or service

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Process Adjustments

Adjustments made to modify the output of a process to achieve a better degree of quality

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Project Quality Management

The processes required to ensure that the result of the project is satisfactory: establishing policies, objectives, and responsibilities

46

Quality

The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements

47

Quality Audits

Reviews of quality activities that apply to lessons learned and can be applied to current and future projects

48

Quality Management Plan

Document that establishes the definition of quality, quality baseline, checklists; also defines and validates quality processes, tests the product, formats data for communication to project stakeholders, and deals with changes to quality standards and processes

49

Reliability

The likelihood of a product or service to function as planned

50

Rework

Actions used to modify/repair defective products to come within specification of the desired process outcome

51

Root Cause Analysis

A technique that is used to discover what is an underlying problem , defect, or variance with a system or product

52

Sample

A part of the population used for a measurement (instead of the entire population)

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Seven Run Rule

A rule that states if seven consecutive data points are on one side of the mean (above or below) or increasing/decreasing, then the process is out of control and should be investigated

54

Sigma

A measurement of acceptability of a product or process

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Special Cause

A non-random or intermittent variable in a system

56

Specification

A document (or piece of a document) that describes the requirements that something is to be
created by or performed to, as well as verifiable when it has been created

57

Specification limits

The area on the sides of a mean of a control chart that the customer has established as acceptable limits for testing; can be above or below but not between the control limits

58

Standard Deviation

The measurement of variation within a distribution

59

Statistical Sampling

Selecting a section of the population to use for a measurement (instead of the entire population)

60

Threshold

A value related to the project such as scope, time, cost, or quality that if crossed, activates some type of report, action, or procedure

61

Value Engineering (VE)

A technique which emphasizes executing the project and total cost of ownership over the product life cycle as efficiently and effectively as possible