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Results or inferences that systematically deviate from the truth 'or the processes leading to such deviation



The abstract for an article says: we examined the association between regular exercise and low back pain over a five year period.
What is the most likely study design
A. Case study
B. Cohort study
D. N=1 clinical trial

B. cohort study


A prospective epidemiologic research design used to evaluate the relationship between a potential exposure (e.g., risk factor) and an outcome (e.g., disease or disorder); two groups of subjects-one of which has the exposure and one of which does not-are monitored over time to determine who develops the outcome and who does not

cohort design


The inability or restricted ability to perform actions, tasks, and activities related to required self-care, home management, work (job/school/play), community, and leisure roles in the individual's sociocultural context and physical environment

disability (Nagi model)


types of observational studies

1. cohort design
2. case control


depicts the clinical aspects of a patients/clients situation, as well as social context that shapes perceptions of health, wellness, illness, and disability for each individual

disablement model


uneven weighing of likelihood based on therapist fear
i.e. "don't want to miss it" "won't do, too risky"

value bias


Alterations in the anatomical, physiological or psychological structures or functions that both (1) result from underlying changes in the normal state and (2) contribute to illness

impairment (Nagi model)


types of experimental studies

randomized control trials


Evidence Based Practice

the integration of the best research, clinical expertise, and patient values


Background question

normal physiology or behavior, pathophysiology, or basic patient diagnostic and treatment information


Foreground question

selection and interpretation of diagnostic tests or clinical measures, prediction of specific patient, prognosis, comparative risks and benefits of various treatment strategies, potential outcomes and their measurement


A retrospective epidemiologic research design used to evaluate the relationship between a potential exposure (e.g., risk factor) and an outcome (e.g., disease or disorder); two groups of subjects-one of which has the outcome (i.e., the case) and one which does not (i.e., the control)-are compared to determine which group has a greater proportion of individuals with the exposure

case control design


A detailed description of the management of a patient/client that may serve as the basis for future research

case report


A description of the management of several patients/clients for the same purposes as a case report; the use of multiple individuals increases the potential importance of the observations as the basis for future research

case series


A research design in which the behavior of randomly assigned groups of subjects is measured following the purposeful manipulation of an independent variable(s) in at least one of the groups; used to examine cause-and-effect relationships between an independent variable(s) and an outcome

experimental design


A statistical method used to pool data from individual studies included in a systematic review



A research design in which controlled manipulation of the subjects is lacking1; in addition, if groups are present, assignment is predetermined based on naturally occurring subject characteristics or activities

observational design


A research design that follows subjects forward over a specified period of time

prospective design


A clinical study that uses a randomization process to assign subjects to either an experimental group(s) or a control (or comparison) group

experimental group = receive the intervention or preventive measure of interest
control group = comparison group who did not receive the experimental manipulation

randomized control trial


A research design that uses historical (past) data from sources such as medical records, insurance claims, or outcomes databases

retrospective design


A method by which a collection of individual research studies is gathered and critically appraised in an effort to reach a conclusion about the cumulative weight of the evidence on a particular topic

systematic review


conclusions based on previously held expectations
i.e. jumping to conclusions

ascertainment bias


selectively focuses on info that confirms hypothesis
i.e. I am sure I need treatment X

confirmation bias


easily remembered due to recent patient examples
i.e. a run of this disorder

recency effect


draw conclusions only from patients that return
i.e. "all my patients get better"

representativeness exclusivity


1) Patient/problem
2) Intervention - what are you going to do/want to do
3) Comparison - what are you doing now
4) Outcome

PICO question


types of descriptive studies

cross sectional
case series
case report


alternating treatment designs and interaction designs to evaluate more than one experimental treatment and the interaction of the two - in these designs, investigators may randomize the order in which the interventions are designed

n=1 study design


statistical analysis of data from subjects according to the group to which they were assigned despite noncompliance with the study protocol

intention to treat


based on ability to control for bias and to demonstrate cause and effect in humans

hierarchy of research designs


What would be the best patient centered design to test whether a specific treatment will work on a specific patient you are currently treating
A. Case study
B. Case series
C. Randomized clinical trial
D. N = 1 clinical trial

N = 1 clinical trial


The abstract for an article says: The primary aim was to compare the effects of the Mckenzie method and motor control exercises on trunk muscle recruitment in people with chronic low back pain classified with a directional preference
A. Diagnostic test study
B. Cohort study
C. Randomized control trial
D. Case study

randomized control trial


EBP is defined as the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of the current best evidence in
A. Diagnostics of patient care
B. Use of therapeutic interventions
C. Care of individual patients
D. In supporting healthcare reform

care of individual patients


The abstract for an article states the following: The 4 patients in this series had clinical evidence and magnetic resonance imaging confirmation of an acetabular labrum tear and underwent a similar treatment protocol consisting of 3 phases.
What is the most likely study design?
A. Cohort study
B. Case series
C. Randomized control trial
D. N of 1 randomized clinical trial

case series


When asking a clinical question about effectiveness of a specific treatment, which of the following is most important
A. more general
B. the more articles the better
C. Best asked using PICO format
D. all the above

best asked using PICO format


Proficiency of clinical skills and abilities, informed by continually expanding knowledge, that individual clinicians develop through experience, learning, and reflection about their practice

clinical expertise


Occur when impairments result in a restriction of the ability to perform a physical action, task or activity in an efficient, typically expected, or competent manner

functional limitations (Nagi model)


Problems in body functions or structure such as a significant deviation or loss

impairment (ICF model)


the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current based evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients

evidence based medicine


a framework for describing and organising information on functioning and disability. It provides a standard language and a conceptual basis for the definition and measurement of health and disability

ICF model


A study that collects data about a phenomenon during a single point in time or once within a defined time interval

cross sectional study


1. The study addresses the specific clinical question the PT is trying to answer
2. the subjects in the study have characteristics that are similar to the patient whom the PT has a clinical question
3. the study was published in peer reviewed medium
4. the context of the study and or technique of interest are consistent with contemporary health care

4 desirable characteristics of research


a prediction that the outcome of an investigation will demonstrate 'no difference' or 'no relationship' between groups (or variables) in the study other than what chance alone might create

statistical hypothesis (null hypothesis)


A prediction that the outcome of an investigation will demonstrate a difference or relationship between groups (or variables) in the study that is the result of more than chance alone

research hypothesis (alternative hypothesis)


The extent to which an intervention produces a desired outcome under ideal conditions



The smallest treatment effect that would result in a change in patient management, given its side effects, costs and inconveniences

Minimal clinically important difference (MCID)


the probability that a statistical finding occurred due to chance

p value


Experimental design that lacks random assignment

quasi-experimental design


Three paradigm shifts in medicine

focus on outcome research to document effectiveness
application of models of health and disability
Attention given to EBP