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1

What is a variable?

A property that can take different values

2

Operational definition is

converting construct into a measurable variable

3

A construct variable is

an abstract (non-observable)

4

Continuous variable is

any value along a continuum within a defined range

5

A discrete variable is

described in whole units. Cannot be halved

6

What are the levels of measurement?

Ratio, interval, ordinal, and nominal

7

Ratio is

numbers that represents units with equal intervals. Measured from a true zero, and has no negatives. Highest and carries the most info. Ex: distance, age, time

8

Interval is

numbers have equal intervals but no true zero. Ex: calendar years, temp

9

Ordinal

numbers indicate a rank order

10

Nominal

numbers are category label. Dichotomous. yes or no answers

11

What is an independent variable?

What you can manipulate/specify.

12

What are dependent variables?

What you measure

13

Types of independent variable

Active and Atrribute

14

Attribute IV

cannot be manipulated. EX: gender

15

Active IV

can be manipulated. Ex: treatment given to a group

16

Repeated factors

same group/people are measured in all levels of an IV. They are their own controls. (within subject)

17

Independent factors

different groups for each level. of IV. (between subjects)

18

Single factor design

Just one independent variable

19

Multifactorial design

two or more IV

20

Univariate design

only 1 dependent variable

21

Multivariate design

multiple dependent variables

22

what is reliability

the extent to which a measurement is consistent & free from error

23

what is measurement error

having the idea that a measurement has a margin of error.

Observed score = true score +/- error

24

Types of measurement error are

Systematic, and random

25

What is systematic error

error that is constant in its ways. Either always overestimating or underestimating

26

What is random error

error that is due to chance from measurement. The measurement are unpredictable

27

Sources of measurement error

Rater, instrument, or variability of characteristic being observed

28

Ways to improve reliability

standardize measurement methods, train & test observers, refine & calibrate instruments, blind rater to reduce bias.

29

what are the two reliability coefficients and what are they used for?

ICC: for continuous scale score
Cohen's kappa: categorical scale scores

30

what is MDC?

The ability of an instrument to detect change above measurement error. (Minimal Detectable Change)