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1

Three types of literature reviews

Narrative, systematic, and Meta-analysis

2

What is a narrative review?

A review that summarizes in general what is in the literature on a given topic

3

Characteristics of a narrative review

- Often written by experts in the field.
- A good source for background information
- Fairly easy to write and read

4

______ review does not follow strict system methods like the other literatures

Narrative review

5

Which review is prone to bias and is low in the hierarchy of evidence?

Narrative review

6

How can narrative bias be seen?

- During the literature research
- During reporting of studies
- In discussion and conclusion

7

How can narrative bias be seen during literature research?

- Authors may be selective as to which articles are selected
- They may include articles that support their hypothesis & exclude those that do not

8

How can narrative bias be seen during reporting of studies?

- Rigorous appraisal methods are not used to evaluate included articles

9

How can narrative bias be seen in discussion and conclusion?

- The authors' opinions may be mixed together with evidence

10

What is a systematic review?

A rigorous process of searching, appraising, summarizing, all the information on a selected topic

11

Systematic reviews most commonly address what type of questions?

Questions of effectiveness, but also diagnostic accuracy, prognosis, or other areas of research

12

What is the aim of a systematic review?

To find all studies addressing the review's question using an OBJECTIVE & TRANSPARENT process

13

What is the gold standard of systematic reviews?

The cochrane collaboration

14

A systematic review is also called a

Study of studies

15

What is the process of a systematic review

- State the study objective
- Develop the protocol (set inclusion/exclusion criteria)
- Develop a search strategy
- Conduct the search
- Retrieve relevant papers
- Screen and select papers that meet established criteria
- Evaluate Methodogical quality of selected studies
- Analyze & synthesize findings
- Determine if statistical data are sufficient for further analyses (If not report results of systematic review) (if it does move to the next step)
- Analyze effects of size estimates
_ Report results of meta-analysis

16

The results of the included studies of a systematic review are ____ or ____

Qualitative or quantitative

17

What happens when the results of a systematic review is qualitatively synthesized?

Written information is merged

18

What happens when the results of a systematic review is quantitatively synthesized?

Data are merged

19

Most known diagnostic study quality?

QUADAS

20

Most known interventional study quality?

PEDro

21

Information collected from a research can include

The method, participants, funding sources, and outcomes

22

Short line in forest plot represents

Better, more valid information

23

Long line in the forest plot represents

Not as good, weaker information

24

The diamond in the forest represents

The combined results of all data included

25

The diamond is considered____ and ______ evidence

more reliable and better

26

What is a meta-analysis?

The statistical technique involved in extracting and combining data produce a summary result

27

When can/should you do a meta-analysis?

- When more than one study has estimated an effect
- When there are to no differences in the study characteristics that are likely to substantially affect outcome
- When the outcome has been measured in similar ways

28

What is the most common way to see the results of a meta-analysis summarized?

In a forest plot

29

What is a forest plot?

A type of graph often used in meta-analyses to illustrate the treatment effect sizes of the studies

30

Each study in a forest plot is represented by a black square that is ____

an estimate of their effect sizes. Ex: Cohen's d