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Flashcards in quiz 2 Deck (65)
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1

Explain a randomized control trial

When you take a group of volunteers, and randomly assign them to two groups.
One groups gets an intervention and the other gets a non-intervention or placebo. These two groups are compared to see if there's a difference between them overtime.

2

What is a confounding variable?

An alternative explanation for a relationship that has been observed

3

Why are RCTs good at dealing with confounding variables?

In an RCT, the confounding variable will equally affect both of the randomly split group in the RCT

4

What is a population?

persons, objects, or events that meet a specific set of criterias

5

What is a target population?

the larger population to which results of a study will be generalized to

6

What is an accessible population

the actual population of subjects available to be chosen for a study. (a subset of the target population)

7

What is a sample?

a subgroup of the accessible population which allows the results to be generalized to the population

8

What is a sampling bias?

the extent that sample SYSTEMATICALLY misrepresents populations. Can be conscious or unconscious

9

What is a sampling error?

the extent that a sample RANDOMLY misrepresents population

10

What are the types of sample techniques?

Probability samples and non-probability samples

11

What is a probability sample?

Random selection (or other known probability). Sample is considered, representative of population(although it may not be).
Can estimate sampling error

12

What is a non-probability sample?

Non-random samples. Generalization is difficult.
Can't estimate sampling error (should not use inferential statistics)

13

Types of probability sampling

Simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified random sampling, and cluster sampling

14

What is simple random sampling?

Random sampling. Everyone has an equal chance of getting in the study

15

What is systematic sampling?

systematically choosing samples. Ex: selecting every 10th person from a group. So you can estimate the probability of a person being in the sample

16

What is stratified random sampling?

specifying a number from each category in the sample.
Ex: 20 students from each grade level

17

What is a cluster sampling?

multi-layer/stage

18

Types of non-probability sampling

convenience sampling, quota sampling, purposive sampling

19

What is convenience sampling?

when subjects are chosen on basis of availability. This is the most common form

20

Types of convenience sampling

- Consecutive sampling: recruit everyone to meet inclusion/exclusion criteria
- Volunteers(flyers/ads): what attributes lead subjects to volunteer & potential bias of self-selection

21

What is quota sampling?

Like stratified, where you select a specific amount from each category, but this is not random

22

What is purposive sampling?

where subjects are hand-picked by specific criteria. Ex: case series

23

What is an extraneous variable?

any factor not related to the purpose of the study, which may affect dependent variables.
- can become confounding variable if uncontrolled

24

3 essential components of experimental research

- include a control or comparison group.
- independent variable manipulated by the experimenter
- subjects are randomly assigned to groups, as opposed to naturally occurring or provider choice

25

What is random assignment?

each subject has an equal chance of being assigned to any group.
- helps control for extraneous variables or prognostic indicators

26

Random sampling is used to ____.
Random assignment is used to _____.

Generalize to a population.
Equalize two groups (controls and experimental)

27

What is concealing allocation?

Separating people should do the "random assignment" & data collection.
Sealed envelopes and locked cabinets

28

What is blinding?

To control conscious & unconscious bias in anyone involved in a study.

29

What is a single blind?

A case where just the measurer is blinded

30

What is double blind?

A case where both the measurer and patient are blinded