Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (18)
What are the 2 broad classes of secondary behaviors?
Escape and avoidance behaviors
Why is "a person who stutters" more favorable than saying someone who is a "stutterer"?
It helps to view the disfluencies as a small part of a whole person
When does stuttering begin?
Between ages 2 and 5
What are some possible causes of stuttering?
Genetics, early childhood stresses, etc.
What variables can help us to distinguish fluent and disfluent speech?
Presence of extra sounds (repetitions, prolongations, revisions, etc.), location and frequency of pauses, rhythmic pattern in speech, intonation and stress, overall rate
What core behavior is typically last to appear?
What are examples of escape behaviors?
Eye blinks, head nods, interjection of extra sounds, followed by a termination of the stutter.
What are examples of avoidance behaviors?
Using previous behaviors, such as eye blinks and interjections, to avoid stuttering and the negative experience it entails
How can you tell the difference between an avoidance and escape behavior?
Escape behaviors only occur after a moment of stuttering has begun, avoidance occurs before the moment of stuttering begins.
Recovery from stuttering without treatment
Spontaneous or natural recovery
What are risk factors to consider for persistent stuttering?
Family history, age of onset, gender, trend of stuttering and severity, duration since onset, duration of disfluencies, continued presence of prolongations and blocks, phonological skills
Do boys or girls have a greater risk of persistence?
Children with onset after __ years are at a higher risk for persistence
T/F: Continued presence of more than one repetition unit, especially more than three (li-li-li-li-like this) is a sign of increased risk.
T/F: The longer the child continues to stutter beyond a year after onset, the lesser the risk of persistence, especially for girls.
False; greater risk
T/F: Children whose phonological skills are below the norms have a greater risk for continued stuttering.
What types of sounds do adults mostly stutter on?
Consonants, sounds in initial position, speech in a larger context, nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, longer words, words at the beginning of sentences, stressed syllables