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1

This level is characteristic of older teens and adults who have been stuttering since childhood.

Advanced stuttering

2

What stuttering patterns are present in advanced stuttering?

Avoidance, ways of coping with blocks is ingrained.

3

These levels reflect both the age of the individual (e.g., younger preschooler, older preschooler, etc.) and the severity of the stuttering (e.g., borderline, beginning, etc.)

Age/developmental levels

4

An unusual way of speaking or acting that seems to reduce stuttering, like laughing and pretending that most things said were a joke. Another example is speaking with an accent that the speaker pretends to have. An avoidance.

Antiexpectancy devices

5

A type of learning that occurs when a person avoids something he or she thinks will be unpleasant.

Avoidance conditioning

6

Type of stuttering characterized by more tension and hurry in disfluencies. Stuttering at this level usually consists of repetitions and prolongations, but some children will also exhibit blocks. Escape and avoidant behaviors may also appear

Beginning stuttering

7

What is the age range for beginning stuttering?

3.5 years - 6

8

What is the age range for borderline stuttering?

2 - 3.5 years

9

This type of stuttering is characterized by more frequent part-word and single-syllable whole-word repetitions than children who are developing typically have, but without awareness or concern on the part of the child.

Borderline stuttering

10

A sound prolongation, broken word, or other instance of ongoing phonation being stopped, extended, or distorted

Dysrhythmic phonation

11

Typical of children in their school-age years, this level of stuttering will abound in repetitions and prolongations, but blocks will also be frequent. In addition to escape behaviors, avoidances will be frequent at this level because there is fear of being “stuck” in a stutter and fear of listener reactions.

Intermediate stuttering

12

This is like a starter, but usually it just involves waiting a few beats before saying a feared word as in “Back then I use to drink a lot of …… soda.” An avoidance.

Postponements

13

Words or sounds used by someone who stutters to get started speaking when blocked or when anticipating a block. For example, a person who stutters might say “My name is, uh, Barry.”

Starters

14

Short-segment repetitions (i.e., part-word and monosyllabic whole-word repetitions), as well as sound prolongations, and blocks. These are disfluencies that are more typically judged by listeners as stuttering.

Stuttering like disfluencies

15

The substitution of an “easier” word for a “harder” word on which a stutterer expects to stutter. For example, a stutterer who often stuttered on words beginning with “p” and who had a dog named “Pluto” might generally substitute “my dog” for the dog’s name when talking about him.

Substitution

16

Name 4 avoidance behaviors

Substitutions, starters, postponements, circumlocutions

17

These are the disfluencies in the speech of individuals who do not have stuttering or other speech problems.

Typical disfluencies

18

What age range are typical disfluencies prevalent in?

2 - 4 years

19

These are speculations about the process that may cause disfluencies or stuttering at each developmental level. For stuttering, these processes help us understand why stuttering often changes from borderline to beginning to intermediate to advanced levels.

Underlying processes

20

Disfluencies that occur within a word boundary such as repetitions of parts of words, prolongations, or blocks.

"Within-word" disfluencies