Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (20)
This level is characteristic of older teens and adults who have been stuttering since childhood.
What stuttering patterns are present in advanced stuttering?
Avoidance, ways of coping with blocks is ingrained.
These levels reflect both the age of the individual (e.g., younger preschooler, older preschooler, etc.) and the severity of the stuttering (e.g., borderline, beginning, etc.)
An unusual way of speaking or acting that seems to reduce stuttering, like laughing and pretending that most things said were a joke. Another example is speaking with an accent that the speaker pretends to have. An avoidance.
A type of learning that occurs when a person avoids something he or she thinks will be unpleasant.
Type of stuttering characterized by more tension and hurry in disfluencies. Stuttering at this level usually consists of repetitions and prolongations, but some children will also exhibit blocks. Escape and avoidant behaviors may also appear
What is the age range for beginning stuttering?
3.5 years - 6
What is the age range for borderline stuttering?
2 - 3.5 years
This type of stuttering is characterized by more frequent part-word and single-syllable whole-word repetitions than children who are developing typically have, but without awareness or concern on the part of the child.
A sound prolongation, broken word, or other instance of ongoing phonation being stopped, extended, or distorted
Typical of children in their school-age years, this level of stuttering will abound in repetitions and prolongations, but blocks will also be frequent. In addition to escape behaviors, avoidances will be frequent at this level because there is fear of being “stuck” in a stutter and fear of listener reactions.
This is like a starter, but usually it just involves waiting a few beats before saying a feared word as in “Back then I use to drink a lot of …… soda.” An avoidance.
Words or sounds used by someone who stutters to get started speaking when blocked or when anticipating a block. For example, a person who stutters might say “My name is, uh, Barry.”
Short-segment repetitions (i.e., part-word and monosyllabic whole-word repetitions), as well as sound prolongations, and blocks. These are disfluencies that are more typically judged by listeners as stuttering.
Stuttering like disfluencies
The substitution of an “easier” word for a “harder” word on which a stutterer expects to stutter. For example, a stutterer who often stuttered on words beginning with “p” and who had a dog named “Pluto” might generally substitute “my dog” for the dog’s name when talking about him.
Name 4 avoidance behaviors
Substitutions, starters, postponements, circumlocutions
These are the disfluencies in the speech of individuals who do not have stuttering or other speech problems.
What age range are typical disfluencies prevalent in?
2 - 4 years
These are speculations about the process that may cause disfluencies or stuttering at each developmental level. For stuttering, these processes help us understand why stuttering often changes from borderline to beginning to intermediate to advanced levels.