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This is the concept that the brain has a limited amount of resources that can be applied to tasks such as learning to speak and learning to walk. If some task requires a great deal of attention or involves extensive neural activity, other tasks performed at the same time will have fewer resources and may thus be less well performed.

Competition for neural resources


Happenings in a child’s life that may stress the child, such as parents’ divorce or being hospitalized

Life events


The communication style that characterizes people in a child’s environment—usually his or her home. For example, some parents, siblings, and other relatives of a child may speak very rapidly, use advanced forms of language, or interrupt the child frequently.

Speech and language environment


What is an example of a developmental factor that may affect someone's stuttering?

Competition for neural resources; some tasks, such as motor skills, may need more attention and more neuronal activity so less attention/activity will be given to speech causing disfluencies, delay in motor development, uneven abilities in motor and language skills


What is are examples of competition for neural resources?

Children usually learn to walk and talk first but not at the same time, cognition and motor control


T/F: neurological structures, pathways, and networks used to produce sounds and words may be inefficient (less well myelinated, where myelin provides a form of insulation that carries signals more efficiently) in children who stutter



T/F: fluency can be influenced by language

True; since it is getting more complicated (greater length and complexity), more disfluencies could occur.


Does utterance length or complexity have a larger influence on stuttering?

Utterance length


What are examples of environmental factors that can influence stuttering?

Stresses and pressures in the child's home, playground, school, or daycare.


How can conversational style influence stuttering?

If conversation between parents include interruptions, rapid, complex speech


This theory proposed that a child’s parents were the cause of stuttering because they misdiagnosed normal disfluencies as stuttering. Parents’ reactions to the “stuttering” then caused the child to try to avoid these normal disfluencies and, in avoiding them, the child hesitated and struggled in a way that eventually became real stuttering.

Diagnosogenic theory of stuttering


What personality characteristics of parents might have an influence on a child's stuttering?

More demanding, anxious, perfectionists, parents may be hypervigilant because they stutter or have relatives who stutter.


What are examples of stressful adult speech models?

Rapid speech rate, polysyllabic vocabulary, complex syntax, use of two languages in the home


What are examples of stressful speaking situations for children that can influence stuttering?

Competition for speaking, interruptions, loss of listener attention, frequent questions, excited to speak, many things to say


Suggested that demands at one level of language production (e.g., syntax) may deplete resources for other levels (e.g., prosody or phonology) and result in breakdown.

Interactive view of speech and language disorders.


What are the 4 characteristics of parents' speech research has been focused on?

Rate of speech, interrupting when the child speaks, frequency of questions the parent asks, linguistic complexity of the parent's speech


What emotional life events can influence a child's stuttering?

Divorce, moving to a new home, hospitalization