Flashcards in Quiz #1: Anxiety/OCD/Crisis/PTSD Deck (67)
What is anxiety?**
-A vague sense of apprehension that is accompanied by feelings of uncertainty, helplessness/intimidation, isolation and insecurity.
-A person senses that the core of his/her personality is being threatened.
-Emotion WITHOUT specific object.
-Fear has a specific object/source
How is anxiety communicated?
Anxiety is about
Anxiety and Hospitalization
Rarely hospitalized for anxiety alone - usually comorbid with suicidal patients or MDD.
Levels of Anxiety: Mild
Day-to-day living; grasps more information
Levels of Anxiety: Moderate
Person focuses only on immediate concerns and involves narrowing of the perceptual fields (selective inattention)
Levels of Anxiety: Severe
Marked by significant reduction in the perceptual field.
Levels of Anxiety: Panic
Dread and terror as the person experiences panic and is unable to do things, even with direction.
Etiology of Anxiety
-Anxiety is related to decrease in GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter (decreases excitability))
-Other inhibitory neurotransmitters include dopamine and serotonin -> calms the brain
-Excitatory neurotransmitters increases stimulation (dopamine (both excitatory and inhibitory), NE and epinephrine)
-Substances such as alcohol and benzodiazepines, increase GABA levels to allow the brain to balance the excitement.
Types of Anxiety Disorders
-Generalized Anxiety Disorder*
-Separation Anxiety Disorder (usually <18 y/o)
-Social Anxiety Disorder
-Sudden onset of fear and impending doom
-Cause cannot be identified
-Severe, recurrent, intermittent attacks lasting from 5-30 minutes
-I.e acrophobia (heights), agoraphobia (crowds/open places), claustrophobia (closed-in spaces), hydrophobia (water), nyxtophobia (dark), thanatophobia (death)
-With fear there is specific stimulation
-Bottom line is anxiety
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms Include
Defense Mechanisms: Denial
avoidance of reality; unconscious failure to acknowledge an event, thought, or feeling
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Displacement
shift emotion from a person/object to another
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Dissociation
disruption in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception (compartmentalizing uncomfortable or unpleasant aspect of oneself)
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Identification
try to be like someone they admire
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Intellectualization
excessive reasoning / logic
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Isolation
splitting off emotions
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Projection
putting thoughts/impulses to another person
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Rationalization
justify an unacceptable feeling/behavior using logical explanations
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Reaction Formation
attitudes/behaviors opposite of real feelings
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Regression
retreat to earlier levels of development
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Repression
involuntary exclusion of thoughts from memory
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Splitting
(two meanings in mental health)
1. Viewing people/situations as all good or bad
2. Viewing and treating one person as good and another as bad
Anxiety Defense Mechanisms: Suppression
intentional exclusion of feelings/ideas
Page 305 of HESI review
Page 283 textbook
Anxiety DSM-5 Criteria
A. Excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation), occurring more days than not for at least 6 months, about a number of events or activities (such as school or work performance)
B. The individual finds it difficult to control the worry.
C. The anxiety and worry are associated with three (or more) of the following six symptoms (with at least some symptoms having been present for more days than not for the past 6 months). (Note: only one item is required in children) 1) restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge 2) being easily fatigued 3) difficulty concentrating or mind going blank 4) irritability 5) muscle tension 6) sleep disturbance.
D. The anxiety, worry or physical symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning
E. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medication condition
F. The disturbance is not better explained by another mental disorder.